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Contents

SIPRI Yearbook 2015

SIPRI Yearbook 2015

Annex C. Chronology 2014

Chapter:
Annex C. Chronology 2014
Source:
SIPRI Yearbook 2015
Author(s):
Nigel Chamberlain, Ian Davis

This chronology lists the significant events in 2014 related to armaments, disarmament and international security. The dates are according to local time. Keywords are indicated in the right-hand column.

1 Jan.

Amid continued fighting, South Sudanese rebels arrive in Ethiopia for talks with the Government of South Sudan to end a conflict that has killed more than 1000 people.

Sudan; Peace talks

2‑4 Jan.

Militants from the Islamic State (IS) take control of half of Fallujah and Ramadi in Anbar Province. Two days later, a senior Iraqi security official admits that the government has lost control of Fallujah to IS.

Iraq; IS

5 Jan.

Start of the International Organization for Migration’s airlift of thousands of African migrants stranded in violence-ravaged Central African Republic (CAR) in dire humanitarian conditions.

CAR

7 Jan.

Syria delivers the first consignment of chemical weapons to its port city Latakia. The chemical weapons are loaded on a Danish ship that sails into international waters.

Syria; chemical weapons

9 Jan.

The Kenyan Air Force carries out airstrikes against a suspected Islamic militant camp in Garbahaareey, Somalia.

Kenya; Somalia

15 Jan.

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon tells a donor conference in Kuwait that half of Syria’s population urgently needs humanitarian aid.

Syria; UN

15 Jan.

President Juan Manuel Santos of Colombia says his government is prepared for talks on a bilateral ceasefire with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), after welcoming FARC’s indefinite cessation of hostilities in Dec.

Colombia; FARC

15 Jan.

Western and Gulf Arab states pledge $1.4 billion for UN aid efforts in Syria. Previous targets were not met.

Syria; UN

16 Jan.

Protests continue in Ukraine. The parliament passes sweeping measures to attempt to stifle protesters and demonstrations. The protests turn violent, with demonstrators attacking police.

Ukraine

16 Jan.

The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) says the amount of chemicals transported to the Syrian port of Latakia for shipping is less than planned due to security concerns.

Syria; OPCW

20 Jan.

Opening of the 2014 session of the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva under the Presidency of Israel.

Nuclear disarmament

20 Jan.

Start of implementation of the interim Joint Plan of Action (JPA) agreed between the E3/EU+3 and Iran on 24 Nov. 2013. Iran implements restrictions on its sensitive nuclear fuel activities in return for the limited lifting of EU and US economic sanctions.

Iran’s nuclear programme

21 Jan.

The Government of Thailand declares a 60-day state of emergency in Bangkok and surrounding provinces as anti-government protests continue.

Thailand

22 Jan.

UN-led negotiations, the Geneva II Conference on Syria, begin in Montreux, Switzerland, then move to Geneva.

Syria; UN

23 Jan.

The Government of South Sudan and rebels sign a ceasefire agreement after talks in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa. The agreement is broken several times over subsequent weeks and months.

Sudan; Peace talks

24 Jan.

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hands Japan the final report from an expert mission that reviews remediation efforts in areas affected by the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident.

Japan; IAEA

27 Jan.

A second shipment of Syrian chemical weapons is loaded onto Danish and Norwegian ships at the Syrian port of Latakia.

Syria; chemical weapons

27 Jan.

End of US President Barack Obama’s visit to India during which the 10-year-old Defence Framework Agreement for military science and technology collaboration is extended and expanded.

India; USA

31 Jan.

The Syrian Government and opposition fail to reach agreement after a week-long peace conference in Geneva.

Syria

1 Feb.

Speaking at the 50th Munich Security Conference, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen outlines several key steps to boost efforts to create a genuine strategic partnership between NATO and Russia.

Russia; NATO

5 Feb.

North and South Korea agree to hold reunions for families separated after the Korean War, following calls from Pyongyang to improve ties.

North Korea; South Korea

6 Feb.

Sigrid Kaag, head of the UN–OPCW mission, addresses the UN Security Council a day after Syria misses an intermediate deadline and urges efforts to speed up the shipments of chemical weapons in order to meet the final destruction deadline of 30 June.

OPCW; UN

7 Feb.

The Russian Foreign Ministry criticizes the US Government’s blacklisting of individuals and organizations linked to Iran’s nuclear programme.

Russia; USA

9 Feb.

Iran and the IAEA reach agreement on seven additional ‘practical steps’ to clarify the scope and nature of Iran’s nuclear programme and to address unresolved concerns about its past nuclear activities with possible military dimensions.

Iran; IAEA

10 Feb.

Opening of second round of negotiations on the Geneva II Conference on Syria.

Syria; UN

10 Feb.

The UN base in Juba, South Sudan, is surrounded by armed government troops and policemen demanding that the UN surrender Nuer civilians sheltering there.

South Sudan; UN

12 Feb.

Russia says it would veto a UN resolution on humanitarian aid access in Syria in its current form, criticizing the draft as an effort to lay a foundation for military strikes against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s Government.

Russia; Syria

12 Feb.

US officials unveil the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) together with 28 other countries, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).

Global Health Security Agenda

13‑14 Feb.

Mexico hosts the second International Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons at Nayarit. None of the five nuclear weapons states attend.

Nuclear weapons

14 Feb.

General Khalifa Haftar calls on the Libyan General National Congress to dissolve and for the formation of a caretaker government committee to oversee new elections.

Libyan elections

15 Feb.

UN-brokered peace talks in Geneva fail, largely because Syrian authorities refuse to discuss a transitional government.

Syria; UN

17 Feb.

Estonia and Russia sign a new treaty to resolve their border dispute.

Estonia; Russia

18 Feb.

Protests erupt in Libya in response to refusal of the General National Congress to disband after its mandate expires.

Libya

18 Feb.

Fighting between members of various ethnicities breaks out within the UN Mission in the capital city of Upper Nile State, Malakal, South Sudan.

South Sudan; UN

20‑23 Feb.

Ukrainian security forces kill at least 77 protesters in Kyiv. The next day, Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych flees to Russia and the opposition takes control under interim president Oleksandr Turchynov and acting prime minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk. Russia refuses to recognize the takeover. Two days later, pro-Russian protests are held in the Crimean city of Sevastopol.

Ukraine

26‑28 Feb.

Pro-Russian forces begin to occupy strategic positions and infrastructure across the Crimean peninsula. Two days later, Russia says it moved troops into Crimea to ‘protect Black Sea Fleet positions’. The Ukrainian Government denounces the move as ‘armed intervention’.

Russia; Ukraine; Crimea

1 Mar.

Start of month-long ceasefire between the Pakistani Government and the Taliban.

Pakistan; the Taliban

1 Mar.

Russia’s Parliament approves President Vladimir Putin’s request to use force in Ukraine to protect Russian interests. US President Barack Obama warns Russia, saying that any violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity would be ‘deeply destabilizing’.

Russia; Ukraine; USA

2 Mar.

NATO’s North Atlantic Council condemns Russia’s military escalation in Crimea and expresses its grave concern regarding the Russian Parliament’s authorization to use the country’s armed forces on the territory of Ukraine.

Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; NATO

3 Mar.

The African Union/UN Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) expresses deep concern over reports of an escalation in violence in South Darfur over the course of the past several days and the Sudanese authorities’ refusal to allow the UN mission access to affected areas.

Sudan; UN

4 Mar.

NATO’s North Atlantic Council meets at Poland’s request to hold consultations on Ukraine within the framework of Article 4 of the Washington Treaty.

Ukraine; NATO

4 Mar.

The World Food Programme reports that 20 000 people have been displaced by renewed fighting in South Sudan.

Sudan; UN

6 Mar.

Cuba agrees to a European Union (EU) invitation to begin talks to restore relations and boost economic ties, on condition of progress on human rights. The EU suspended ties in 1996.

Cuba; EU

6 Mar.

The EU and UN Security Council both hold emergency meetings on the crisis in Ukraine. The Supreme Council of Crimea decides to seek entry into the Russian Federation and to hold a referendum in the whole territory of Crimea.

Russia; Ukraine; Crimea

11 Mar.

The head of MONUSCO, the UN peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), warns rebel fighters from the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) to ‘surrender without delay’ and join the disarmament process or face consequences.

DRC

11 Mar.

The Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol city council adopt the Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea.

Russia; Ukraine; Crimea

12 Mar.

The US Ambassador Samantha Power reports to the UN that 120 000 people have been displaced in Darfur since Jan. 2014.

Sudan; UN

13 Mar.

US F-16 combat aircraft land at Poland’s Lask air base to participate in military exercises seen as a signal of support for eastern NATO allies. Russia begins military exercises, involving more than 8000 troops, close to the border with Ukraine. Belarus asks Russia to deploy additional combat and military transport aircraft on its territory.

Russia; NATO

16‑17 Mar.

Referendum on the status of Crimea is held. The following day the Crimean Parliament declares independence from Ukraine. The EU and the USA respond with targeted sanctions against Russians and Ukrainians.

EU; Russia; Ukraine; USA; Crimea

16 Mar.

Syrian Army and Hezbollah forces claim to have recaptured Yabroud, the last rebel stronghold near the Lebanese border.

Syria

18 Mar.

Russia and the separatist government of Crimea sign a treaty of accession of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol into the Russian Federation. President Timofti warns Russia not to annex Moldova’s breakaway Trans-Dniester region as it did with Ukraine’s Crimea.

Russia; Ukraine; Crimea

19 Mar.

OPCW says that two additional shipments of chemicals have been loaded onto cargo vessels during the past week. Syria has now shipped out more than 45 per cent of its stockpile.

Syria; OPCW

20 Mar.

Denmark completes its stockpile destruction of cluster munitions.

Cluster bombs

21 Mar.

The political provisions of the Ukraine–EU Association Agreement are signed while President Putin signs the legislation completing the annexation of Crimea. The OSCE decides to deploy a Special Monitoring Mission (SMM) to Ukraine.

EU; Ukraine; OSCE

22 Mar.

The Libyan National Army fights rebels occupying several oil ports in Libya.

Libya

24 Mar.

Two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, drones), allegedly from North Korea, are found in South Korea, sparking debate about the North Korea’s intelligence gathering capabilities.

North Korea; South Korea

24 Mar.

An Egyptian court sentences 528 supporters of former President Mohammed Morsi to death for a range of offences. It is the largest mass death sentence in recent history anywhere in the world.

Egypt

24‑25 Mar.

The third in a series of Nuclear Security Summit meetings is held in The Hague, the Netherlands, that is attended by 53 heads of state and government, as well as representatives of international bodies. The concluding communiqué reaffirms the need to strengthen nuclear security and urges action on a range of initiatives and measures, including ratification of the 2005 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials

IAEA; Nuclear security

24 Mar.

On the sidelines of the Nuclear Security Summit the leaders of the G7 meet for the first time since Russia’s annexation of Crimea. Collectively they make the decision to meet without Russia until further notice.

G7/8 and Russia

26 Mar.

Start of peace talks between the Government of Pakistan and the Taliban.

Pakistan; the Taliban

26 Mar.

Paul Johnson, deputy editor of the British newspaper The Guardian, confirms that British law enforcement agencies have threatened to close the newspaper over its role in publishing global surveillance information obtained from US whistleblower Edward Snowden.

Edward Snowden; surveillance

27 Mar.

North Korea test-fires two medium-range Nodong ballistic missiles in violation of UN resolutions and just hours after the USA, South Korea and Japan meet in the Netherlands for talks.

North Korea; Missile test

27 Mar.

Moro Islamic Liberation Front rebel group signs a peace deal with the Philippines Government bringing one of Asia’s longest and deadliest conflicts to an end.

Philippines

27‑28 Mar.

The UN General Assembly passes a non-binding resolution that declares the Crimean referendum invalid and the incorporation of Crimea into the Russian Federation illegal. The next day, US President Obama urges Russia to ‘move back its troops’ from Ukraine and lower tensions.

UN; USA; Crimea

28 Mar.

Former Prime Minister of Norway Jens Stoltenberg is appointed to succeed Denmark’s Anders Fogh Rasmussen as the next Secretary General of NATO.

NATO

1 Apr.

The Japanese Government ends its ban on weapons exports, replacing the self-imposed ban dating to the late 1960s with new, still-restrictive guidelines that permit the export of weapons only to allies and partners that agree not to sell them to third nations without Japanese approval.

Japan; Export controls

1 Apr.

NATO foreign ministers suspend all practical cooperation with Russia as a direct consequence of Russia’s military intervention in Ukraine. Poland asks NATO to station 10 000 troops on its territory, to signal NATO’s resolve to defend all its members.

Russia; NATO

3 Apr.

UN announces that the number of Syrian refugees registered in Lebanon has surpassed 1 million. The influx means that one in every four people living in Lebanon is a refugee from the Syrian conflict.

Syria; UN

5 Apr.

Amidst violence, voters in Afghanistan elect a new president in the country’s first democratic transfer of power.

Afghanistan

7‑8 Apr.

Pro-Russian activists occupying a government building in the eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk announce the creation of a sovereign Donetsk People’s Republic, independent of the capital Kyiv. The next day, Russia warns Ukraine that any use of force in eastern Ukraine could lead to a civil war.

Russia; Ukraine

10 Apr.

UN Security Council authorizes a peacekeeping force of 12 000 troops for the CAR (MINUSCA).

CAR; UN

11 Apr.

UNICEF warns that the conflict in South Sudan has triggered a serious risk of famine that could lead to the deaths of up to 50 000 children within months.

Sudan

14‑15 Apr.

Boko Haram kidnaps 276 female students in Chibok, Nigeria.

Nigeria; Boko Haram

15 Apr.

The Ukrainian Parliament declares Crimea a territory temporarily occupied by Russia. NATO Secretary General Rasmussen says that the Ukraine crisis has amplified the need to strengthen cooperation between NATO and the EU, and with close partners.

EU; Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; NATO

17 Apr.

The Taliban formally ends the ceasefire with the Pakistan Government.

Pakistan; the Taliban

17 Apr.

Russia, Ukraine, the USA and the EU agree at talks in Geneva on measures to ‘de-escalate’ the crisis in eastern Ukraine.

EU; Russia; Ukraine; USA; Crimea

18 Apr.

The IAEA says Iran has diluted half of its higher-enriched uranium stockpile, in accordance with a deal agreed earlier in the year.

Iran; IAEA

22 Apr.

Asia–Pacific naval chiefs approve the region’s first code of conduct, the Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea (CUES), for unscheduled encounters between navy ships and aircraft, during the 14th Western Pacific Naval Symposium in Qingdao, China.

Asia–Pacific

24 Apr.

Nine months of US-mediated, Israel–Palestine peace talks collapse.

Israel–Palestine

24‑28 Apr.

US President Obama threatens additional sanctions on Russia. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov states that the USA is causing the political upheaval in Ukraine, and says Russia will respond if its fundamental interests are threatened. Four days later, the USA imposes a third round of sanctions against Russia.

Russia; USA; Ukraine

28 Apr.

An Egyptian court hands down a death sentence on 638 supports of the Muslim Brotherhood, among them the group’s top leader Mohamed Badie.

Egypt

28 Apr.

The Philippines and the USA sign a 10-year ‘Enhanced Defence Cooperation Agreement’ as part of the ‘pivot to Asia’, which will provide additional US troops to the country amid regional tensions with China.

Philippines; USA

1 May

French and Estonian troops take charge of security at the airport in Bangui in the Central African Republic under an EU mandate.

CAR; EU

1 May

China and Russia announce plans to hold joint naval exercises in the East China Sea in late May amid regional tensions about islands and airspace.

China; Russia

2 May

China deploys an exploratory oil rig in the East China Sea, an area disputed with Viet Nam, escalating regional tension.

China; Viet Nam

5 May

The WHO declares the international spread of wild poliovirus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

Public health emergency

6 May

Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov rules out any further talks in Geneva to defuse the crisis unless pro-Russian groups are also involved.

Russia; Ukraine

7 May

Hundreds of rebels are evacuated from their last stronghold in the central Syrian city of Homs in accordance with the UN-brokered deal between the rebels and the Syrian Government. The withdrawal marks the end of three years of resistance in the city.

Syria

8 May

Ships from China and Viet Nam collide in the South China Sea, escalating tensions over disputed islands.

China; Viet Nam

9 May

The Government of South Sudan and rebels sign another ceasefire in Addis Ababa, which promptly disintegrates within hours of coming into effect.

Sudan

9 May

The Iraqi Government launches a large-scale military operation to regain control of Fallujah.

Iraq; IS

9 May

The Preparatory Committee for the 2015 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) ends its third and final session at the UN in New York, but was unable to agree on recommendations to the Review Conference.

NPT

12 May

Major General Kristin Lund from Norway becomes the first woman to command a UN peacekeeping force—Force Commander of the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP).

UN; Peacekeeping; gender

13 May

The UN and Arab League special envoy to Syria, Lakhdar Brahimi, announces with regret his resignation from the post.

Syria

13‑16 May

Informal meeting of experts on lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS) at the UN office in Geneva.

LAWS

14‑16 May

Talks to end the crisis in Ukraine begin, without representatives of pro-Russian separatist groups. Meanwhile, the UN warns of a deterioration of human rights in eastern Ukraine and the harassment and persecution of the Crimean Tartars in Crimea.

Russia; Ukraine; Crimea; UN

16 May

Libyan National Army General Khalifa Haftar launches a military assault, including airstrikes against militant Islamist groups in Benghazi, and tries to seize the parliament building.

Libya

18 May

More than 3000 Chinese citizens are evacuated from Viet Nam, following 2 deaths and more than 100 injured in rioting after China begins drilling for oil in the South China Sea.

China; Viet Nam

20‑21 May

Albert Koenders, head of the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) warns that renewed violence in northern Mali threatened to destabilize the entire sub-region. The following day, a fragile truce with Tuareg National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) separatists breaks down in the north of Mali.

Mali

20 May

UN envoy Toby Lanzer says the conflict in South Sudan has resulted in the deaths of thousands, displacement of more than a million and five million in need of humanitarian aid.

Sudan

22 May

Start of Fourth Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) in Shanghai, a multi-national forum for enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia.

Asia; CICA

23 May

Start of negotiations between Iran and Russia on a nuclear cooperation agreement that includes the building by Russia of two additional nuclear reactors at Iran’s Bushehr power plant.

Iran; Russia

23 May

Russia and China veto a UN Security Council resolution that would have requested the International Criminal Court to investigate war crimes in Syria. All other members of the Security Council and a further 65 countries supported the resolution.

Syria; UN

25‑27 May

Leading businessman Petro Poroshenko wins the Ukraine presidential election on a pro-Western platform and vows to continue Kyiv’s anti-terrorist operation against pro-Russian militants in the east.

Ukraine; Elections

26 May

Islamist terror group Boko Haram kills at least 33 security personnel during attacks in Nigeria’s north-eastern Yobe State.

Nigeria; Boko Haram

27 May

UN Security Council reinforces the UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) and re-prioritizes its mandate towards the protection of civilians, human rights monitoring, and support for the delivery of humanitarian assistance and the implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement.

UN; South Sudan

27‑28 May

US President Obama announces that 9800 US troops will remain in Afghanistan for a year after the withdrawal of combat troops in Dec. 2014. The next day, he announces a $5 billion ‘terrorism partnership fund’ to assist other countries tackle extremists.

Afghanistan; USA

29 May

International Day of UN Peacekeepers: ‘A force for the future’.

UN; Peacekeeping

29 May

Start of the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCoC) annual regular meeting in Vienna, Austria.

Missile proliferation

3 June

US President Obama announces the European Reassurance Initiative—a $1 billion plan to fund an increased US military presence in Europe and to step up defence capabilities of Georiga, Moldova and Ukraine.

Ukraine; USA

5‑8 June

IS forces begin a major offensive in northern Iraq against the government. Three days later, IS takes Mosul and declares a ‘caliphate’ in the territory it controls.

Iraq; IS

6 June

The 2014 Australia Group plenary concludes in Paris having considered the verification implications of the use of chemical weapons in Syria.

Australia Group

8 June

An assault on Karachi’s international airport in Pakistan leaves dozens dead. Uzbek militants fighting with the Pakistani Taliban claim responsibility.

Pakistan; the Taliban

10‑12 June

IS militants capture Mosul, Iraq, while police and military flee. The next day, insurgents gain control of Tikrit. On the third day, Iraqi Kurds take control of Kirkuk.

Iraq; IS

12 June

US President Obama and Australian Prime Minister Abbott announce the conclusion of the US–Australian Force Posture Agreement, which will permit US participation in regional activities including maritime capacity building and humanitarian assistance/disaster relief.

Australia; USA

14 June

Second round of presidential election held in Afghanistan.

Afghanistan; elections

14 June

US President Obama condemns Russian ‘aggression’ in Ukraine while speaking in Warsaw to mark 25 years since the fall of communism in Poland.

Russia; Ukraine; USA

14 June

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani says Iran is prepared to assist the Iraqi Government in its battle against extremist Sunni insurgents. The Iranian Revolutionary Guard is reportedly providing military training and advice.

Iran; Iraq

15 June

Peace talks with the Taliban collapse and Pakistani armed forces launch Operation Zarb-e-Azb, a major offensive on Islamist hideouts in north-west Pakistan.

Pakistan; the Taliban

18 June

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon welcomes the signing of an agreement between the Government of Mali and Tuareg rebels, providing for an immediate ceasefire and paving the way for country-wide presidential elections.

Mali; elections

20 June

The US Government sends 300 military advisers to Iraq as battle rages in Baiji over the country’s biggest oil refinery.

Iraq; USA

21 June

Médecins Sans Frontières declares the Ebola outbreak to be ‘out of control’.

Ebola crisis; global health

22 June

India ratifies an Additional Protocol to its safeguards agreements with the IAEA, which will strengthen the agency’s oversight of India’s civilian nuclear facilities. A significant proportion of India’s nuclear complex, including eight reactors, remain outside IAEA safeguards.

India; IAEA; Nuclear non-proliferation

23 June

The Joint Mission of the OPCW and the UN announces that the removal of Syria’s chemical weapons material is complete. It also says Syria has destroyed all declared production, mixing and filling equipment and munitions.

Syria; OPCW

23‑27 June

Third review conference of the Anti-Personnel Mines (APM) Convention in Maputo, Mozambique, convenes.

Anti-personnel mines

25 June

The UN Security Council decides that the Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) should focus on ensuring security, stabilization and protection of civilians, supporting national political dialogue and reconciliation, assisting the re-establishment of state authority, the rebuilding of the security sector, and the promotion and protection of human rights.

Mali; UN

26 June

The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) 2014 plenary meeting in Buenos Aires, Argentina, convenes to consider measures to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.

NSG; Nuclear non-proliferation

27 June

The economic part of the Ukraine–EU Association Agreement is signed. Russian President Putin states that making Ukraine choose between Russia and the EU will split the country in two.

EU; Russia; Ukraine

28 June

The Iraqi Army expels militants from the centre of Tikrit after heavy fighting.

Iraq; IS

29 June

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant is renamed the Islamic State, with a caliphate being proclaimed and Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi being named caliph.

IS

1 July

Japanese Government approves a reinterpretation of Article 9 of the constitution, which establishes a right to collective self-defence and will enable Japan’s military forces to operate overseas and to provide greater support to US military operations in Asia.

Japan; USA

2 July

A Danish ship carrying hundreds of tons of Syrian chemical weapons arrives in the Italian port of Gioia Tauro prior to a rendezvous with a US ship that will destroy the weapons at sea.

Syria; Chemical weapons

2 July

The foreign ministers of France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine meet in Berlin, Germany, and stress the need to implement the Geneva ceasefire agreement.

Ukraine crisis

3 July

The sixth and final round of nuclear negotiations between Iran and the E3/EU+3 group begins in Vienna.

Nuclear talks on Iran

3 July

Saudi Arabia deploys 30 000 soldiers to its border with Iraq after Iraqi government forces withdrew from the area.

Saudi Arabia

8 July

The Israeli cabinet approves the call up of 40 000 reserve soldiers and the Israeli armed forces launches Operation Protective Edge against Gaza. The offensive lasts seven weeks and results in the deaths of 2200 people, mostly civilians according to the UN.

Israel; Gaza; UN

11 July

The UN Security Council meets to discuss new trends in UN peacekeeping. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon says that he will initiate a review of UN peacekeeping that will address increased capabilities, rapid deployment, command and control, and cooperation with regional organizations.

UN; Peacekeeping

13‑14 July

The Libyan conflict escalates when Tripoli’s Islamists and Misratan militias launch Operation Libya Dawn to seize Tripoli International Airport. The following day, as the security situation deteriorates, UN staff pull out of Libya, embassies are shut and foreigners are evacuated.

Libya; UN

16 July

The USA imposes sanctions against key sectors of the Russian economy.

Russia; USA

17 July

Malaysian Airlines flight MH17 travelling from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur crashes in eastern Ukraine, close to the border with Russia, killing all 298 people on board. Evidence suggests that it was shot down.

Malaysia; Russia; Ukraine

21 July

The OPCW announces that all of the chemical weapon agents and chemical precursors have reached the various facilities in Finland, the USA, the UK or the US vessel Cape Ray for destruction.

Syria; OPCW

21‑23 July

The UN Security Council calls for an immediate ceasefire in the Gaza Strip after an emergency meeting. Two days later, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay condemns both Israel’s military actions in the Gaza Strip and Hamas for ‘indiscriminate attacks’ on Israel, and warns that war crimes may have been committed.

Israel; Gaza; Hamas; UN

23 July

Muslim Séléka rebels and Christian ‘anti-balaka’ vigilante forces in CAR agree to a tentative ceasefire at talks in Brazzaville.

CAR

23 July

The Red Cross officially declares the fighting in Ukraine as a civil war. The formal classification means participants in the fighting between government forces and pro-Russian separatists in the east could eventually be prosecuted for war crimes in international courts.

Russia; Ukraine; Red Cross

24 July

The European Court for Human Rights censures Poland over CIA renditions.

Poland; USA

24 July

The interim Joint Plan of Action agreed between the E3/EU+3 and Iran in Nov. 2013 is extended for a further six months.

Iran’s nuclear programme

25 July

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon congratulates the Malian parties on the adoption of a roadmap at the end of the first round of peace talks, while voicing his deep concern at the deteriorating security situation in parts of northern Mali.

Mali

26 July

UN Security Council describes the food crisis in South Sudan as the worst in the world.

South Sudan

28 July

The US State Department’s annual report on global compliance with arms control and non-proliferation agreements states publicly for the first time that the USA had determined that Russia was in violation of its obligations under the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty.

Russia; USA; INF Treaty

29‑30 July

Russia is accused of supplying rebels in Ukraine with heavy weaponry. The US announces new economic sanctions against Russia, widening their scope to include three key sectors of the economy: energy, arms and finance. A day later, the EU expands its sanctions against Russia, targeting the oil sector, defence equipment and sensitive technologies.

EU; Russia, Ukraine

30 July

Canada accuses China of carrying out a cyber attack on computers belonging to its leading scientific and technology research organization. China denies the claim.

Cyber attack

1 Aug.

Troops from Armenia and Azerbaijan clash on the border and near the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region.

Nagorno-Karabakh

1 Aug.

Russia denies the US claim that it had violated its INF Treaty commitments. The Russian Foreign Ministry dismissed the US State Department compliance report for making a charge supported by ‘little to no evidence and based on warped logic’.

Russia; USA; INF Treaty

3 Aug.

A military spokesman for the Ukrainian Government says the army recaptured three-quarters of the territory the pro-Russian rebels once controlled in their self-proclaimed Donetsk People’s Republic and Luhansk People’s Republic rebellion.

Russia; Ukraine

4 Aug.

Peace talks begin in Addis Ababa and continue for months, as fighting persists in South Sudan.

South Sudan; Peace talks

5 Aug.

Israeli ground forces agree to leave the Gaza Strip ahead of an Egyptian mediated ceasefire, which is soon broken.

Israel; Gaza

4‑8 Aug.

Meeting of Experts and Meeting of States Parties to the Third Intersessional Process of the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC).

Biological weapons

7 Aug.

The WHO officially declares the Ebola outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

Ebola crisis; global health

7‑10 Aug.

The USA launches a humanitarian mission in Iraq to aid refugees fleeing before the IS advance. The next day, the USA starts airstrikes in Iraq against IS. Iraqi Kurdish security forces report that they have opened a road to Sinjar, rescuing over 5000 Yazidis besieged by IS. The President of Iraqi Kurdistan, Massoud Barzani, appeals for international military aid to help defeat Islamist militants. The USA launches a fourth round of airstrikes targeting IS fighters near Erbil, and Kurdish forces regain control of two towns in Nineveh province after heavy fighting.

Iraq; USA; IS

11 Aug.

Israel and Hamas begin talks in Cairo, Egypt, aimed at finding a long-term solution to the conflict.

Israel; Hamas

12 Aug.

Russia sends first of several convoys, not authorized by Ukraine and said to carry humanitarian aid, to Donetsk and Luhansk.

Russia; Ukraine

14 Aug.

The chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, Martin Dempsey, holds talks with Vietnamese leaders, in the highest level visit by a US military officer since the Viet Nam war.

USA; Viet Nam

14 Aug.

The UN declares its highest state of emergency in Iraq following the advance of IS. US President Obama announces that US airstrikes broke the IS siege of Mount Sinjar, allowing thousands of Yazidi refugees to escape, and declares plans for further airstrikes against IS forces.

Iraq; USA; UN; IS

20 Aug.

IAEA reports that Iran is continuing to meet its NPT commitments under the interim accord that it reached with the P5+1 (China, France, Russia, the UK and the USA; plus Germany).

Iran; IAEA

21‑22 Aug.

NATO images show Russian soldiers, artillery and armoured vehicles in ‘military operations’ in eastern Ukraine. The next day, a large Russian convoy delivers humanitarian aid to the government-besieged city of Luhansk without Ukrainian permission.

Russia; Ukraine; NATO

22 Aug.

The UN estimates that the death toll in Syria has doubled to at least 191 000 in the past year.

Syria; UN

23‑25 Aug.

Tripoli International Airport is captured by Islamist militias following days of clashes with nationalist militias. Two days later, US officials report that Egypt and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have secretly launched airstrikes against the Islamist-allied militias battling for control of Tripoli.

Egypt; Libya; UAE

24 Aug.

An Israeli-made UAV is shot down near the Natanz nuclear enrichment facility by Iranian Revolutionary Guards.

Iran; Israel; UAVs

25 Aug.

Boko Haram declares an Islamic state in areas of Nigeria under its control.

Nigeria; Boko Haram

27‑28 Aug.

The UN reports that IS militants have committed ‘mass atrocities’ in Syria. The next day, Tabqa airbase, near the northern city of Raqqa in Syria, falls to IS militants, who now control the entire Raqqa province.

Syria; IS

27 Aug.

Resumption of clashes between troops from Armenia and Azerbaijan over the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh.

Nagorno-Karabakh

28 Aug.

NATO’s Allied Command Operations in Belgium releases new satellite imagery that claim to show Russian combat forces engaged in military operations inside the sovereign territory of Ukraine.

Russia; Ukraine; NATO

28‑31 Aug.

Syrian Air Force combat aircraft bomb rebel-held positions near the Israel–Syria border on the Golan Heights. The UN estimates that 3 million Syrians live as refugees overseas while another 6.5 million are displaced within Syria. Thirty-two UN peacekeepers from the Philippines are evacuated under fire from the Golan Heights border checkpoint between Syria and Israel, while others remain under fire from groups including the al-Nusra Front.

Syria; Golan Heights; UN; IS

31 Aug.

During the EU meeting about the Ukraine crisis, German Chancellor Angela Merkel declares that arms supplies to Ukraine are inappropriate because there is no military solution to the conflict.

EU; Ukraine

1 Sep.

Tuareg rebels and Malian Government officials begin new round of talks in Algeria to try to end the conflict over northern Mali, or Azawad as the secessionists call it.

Mali; Peace talks

3 Sep.

France halts delivery of the first of two Mistral-class amphibious assault ships to the Russian Navy due to circumstances in Ukraine.

France; Russia; Ukraine; Arms transfers

4 Sep.

IAEA assesses that the heavy-water reactor at the Yongbyon nuclear site in North Korea has resumed operation based on analysis of satellite imagery.

North Korea; IAEA

4‑5 Sep.

NATO Heads of State and Government hold a meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Wales and agree a Summit Declaration. Allied leaders agree a Readiness Action Plan, pledge to reverse defence cuts, pledge support for Ukraine and re-affirm continued support for Afghanistan.

NATO

5 Sep.

Representatives of Ukraine, Russia, the People’s Republic of Donetsk and the People’s Republic of Luhansk sign the Minsk Protocol, an agreement to halt the war in the Donbass region of Ukraine.

Russia; Ukraine

6 Sep.

North Korea test-fires several short-range missiles into the Sea of Japan.

North Korea; Missile test

7‑10 Sep.

The USA launches new airstrikes on IS in western Iraq. Three days later, US President Obama says he will not hesitate to take action against the group in Syria as well as in Iraq. Obama authorizes $25 million for ‘immediate military assistance’ to the Iraqi Government and Kurdistan Regional Government.

Iraq; Syria; USA; IS; Airstrikes

10 Sep.

OPCW’s fact-finding mission to Syria submits its key findings. A summary report for the period 3–31 May states that available information ‘lends credence to the view that toxic chemicals, most likely pulmonary irritating agents such as chlorine, have been used in a systematic manner in a number of attacks’.

Syria; OPCW; Chemical weapons

12 Sep.

The European Commission, and the Governments of Ukraine and Russia agree on deferring the provisional implementation of the Ukraine–EU Association Agreement until the end of 2015.

EU; Ukraine

14 Sep.

Australia says it is sending 600 troops and combat aircraft to the Middle East ahead of possible combat operations against IS in Iraq.

Australia; IS

15 Sep.

International conference in Paris, including 10 Sunni Arab states but excluding Iran and Syria, agrees to support the new US forward strategy in the Middle East.

Paris conference on the Middle East

15 Sep.

The UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) takes over responsibilities of the African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic (MISCA). The EU’s French mission remains in place.

CAR; UN

16‑18 Sep.

Villagers in the Guinean sub-prefecture Wome murder eight members of an Ebola sensitization team.

Ebola crisis

17 Sep.

Xi Jinping, the President of China, travels to India to improve trade links and attempt to resolve decades old disputes over borders.

China; India

18 Sep.

The UN Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution stating that the Ebola virus outbreak in Africa constitutes ‘a threat to international peace and security’.

UN; Ebola

18 Sep.

The US Senate passes a budget measure authorizing President Obama to equip and train moderate rebels to fight IS in Syria.

USA; IS

19 Sep.

A follow-up to the Minsk Protocol is agreed, which seeks to clarify its implementation, but both parties continue to accuse each other of ceasefire violations.

Ukraine crisis

19 Sep.

France launches airstrikes against IS.

France; IS

20‑21 Sep.

Fierce battles between government forces and Shia Houthi rebels continue for third day in the Yemeni capital Sana’a. The next day, the Yemeni Government and Houthi rebels sign an agreement aimed at ending the crisis.

Yemen

21 Sep.

Afghanistan’s rival presidential candidates, Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah, sign a power-sharing deal that establishes a unity government with Ghani as President and Abdullah as Chief Executive.

Afghan elections

21 Sep.

Tens of thousands of Kurds flee into Turkey ahead of an IS offensive.

Kurds; IS

22 Sep.

The 58th Annual IAEA General Conference takes place in Vienna with a strong focus on radioactive waste management.

IAEA

23 Sep.

The USA and five Arab countries (Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE) launch combined airstrikes against IS militants in and around Aleppo and Raqqa, Syria.

Syria; IS; Airstrikes

23 Sep.

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon holds a climate summit in New York, which sees member states pledge contributions to the Green Climate Fund and sign a major declaration on ending deforestation by 2030.

UN; Climate change

24 Sep.

NATO reports a ‘significant’ withdrawal of Russian troops from eastern Ukraine.

Russia; Ukraine, NATO

24 Sep.

For the first time, the UN Security Council in Resolution 2178 identifies women’s empowerment, among a range of other measures, as a means of countering violent extremism.

Gender

25 Sep.

During a side event at the UN General Assembly, Dr Margaret Chan, Director General of the WHO, concludes that attacks on aid workers are increasing.

UN; Aid workers

26 Sep.

At the UN Summit on Peace Operations, 31 countries come together in the margins of the UN General Assembly to pledge support and strengthen UN peace operations.

UN; peacekeeping

26 Sep.

Lebanese Prime Minister Salam appeals to world leaders at the UN to help Lebanon face a ‘terrorist onslaught’ and a flood of refugees from Syria.

Lebanon; Syria

29 Sep.

Start of the 28th plenary meeting of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) in Oslo, Norway, to discuss developments in missile proliferation.

Missile proliferation

30 Sep.

Bilateral Security Agreement between the USA and Afghanistan and a Status of Forces Agreement between NATO and Afghanistan are signed.

Afghanistan; USA; NATO

1 Oct.

Philippine President Benigno Aquino criticizes the UN for a lack of support when Filipino peacekeeping troops are attacked by Syrian rebels while patrolling the Golan Heights, and says Philippine troops can no longer be part of missions that are impossible or unclear.

Philippines; UN

2 Oct.

The USA says it will partially lift its embargo on arms sales to Viet Nam, which has been in place for three decades. The USA says the move applies to weapons for maritime defence purposes only.

USA; Viet Nam

2 Oct.

The Turkish Parliament approves a motion authorizing possible military operations against militants in Iraq and Syria who threaten Turkey. The motion also allows the use of Turkish military bases by foreign forces for the same purpose.

Turkey; IS

3 Oct.

The newly appointed Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven declares the new Swedish Government to be a feminist government, which leads to the declaration of a feminist foreign policy.

Sweden; Gender

3 Oct.

Nine UN peacekeepers from Niger are killed when their convoy is ambushed in north-east Mali.

Niger; UN

4 Oct.

North Korean officials pay a surprise visit to South Korea and agree to resume the inter-Korean talks that have been suspended since Feb.

North Korea; South Korea

4 Oct.

The new Swedish Government announces that it will recognize the state of Palestine and becomes the first EU country to do so.

Sweden; Palestine

8 Oct.

The Canadian Parliament votes to join the US-led coalition carrying out airstrikes against IS militants in Iraq.

Canada; IS

10 Oct.

IS forces capture the headquarters of Kurdish forces defending the Syrian border town of Kobane with the UN warning of a massacre.

IS; Kurdish forces

10 Oct.

Pakistani child- and girls’-education activist Malala Yousafzai and Indian children’s rights advocate Kailash Satyarthi share the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize.

Nobel Peace Prize; Gender

11 Oct.

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visits Libya to continue UN-brokered talks between the new parliament and government based in Tobruk and Islamist Libya Dawn militias holding Tripoli.

Libya; UN

11‑13 Oct.

Turkey permits the training of 2000 Syrian opposition forces on its soil as IS militants approach to within one mile of the centre of the border city of Kobane. IS dispatch 10 000 militants from Syria and Mosul with the aim of capturing the Iraqi capital city of Baghdad. IS fighters advance to within 25 kilometres of Baghdad Airport.

Turkey; IS

12 Oct.

Russian President Putin orders thousands of troops stationed near the Ukrainian border to return to their bases.

Russia; Ukraine

19 Oct.

The UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER) is established as ‘a temporary measure to meet the immediate needs related to the unprecedented fight against Ebola’.

UN; Ebola crisis; global health

19 Oct.

The Swedish National Defence Radio Agency says it detected radio communication in Russian transmitted on a special emergency frequency used by Russia from an underwater vehicle in the Stockholm archipelago.

Russia; Sweden

24 Oct.

Lebanon’s army clash with Sunni Islamist gunmen in the northern city of Tripoli in a spillover of violence from the Syrian conflict.

Lebanon; IS

24 Oct.

The EU reaches a landmark climate deal to cut pollution emissions by 40 per cent by 2030.

EU; Climate change

24 Oct.

Russian President Putin announces that all systems of global collective security now lie in ruins and that there are no longer any international security guarantees. He accuses the USA of having destroyed them.

Russia; Global security

26 Oct.

Ukraine Parliamentary elections produce convincing majority for pro-Western parties, which begin process of forming a new coalition led by Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk.

Ukraine; Elections

26 Oct.

Camp Bastion (the last remaining British military base in Afghanistan) and Camp Leatherneck (a US base next to it) are handed over to the Afghan Government.

Afghanistan; NATO

27 Oct.

Cyprus suspends peace talks with Turkish-led Cypriots in protest against what it calls efforts by Turkey to prevent it from exploring gas fields south of the island.

Cyprus; Turkey

27 Oct.

Start of NATO’s annual nuclear strike exercise ‘Steadfast Noon 2014’ at Ghedi Air Base in Italy practises employment of US nuclear bombs deployed in Europe and includes aircraft from Belgium, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Turkey and the USA.

NATO; WMD

30 Oct.

Sweden recognizes Palestine as a sovereign state. Israel recalls its ambassador to Sweden.

Sweden; Palestine

31 Oct.

Libyan special forces retake part of the eastern city of Benghazi from armed Islamist groups.

Libya

31 Oct.

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appoints High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations under the chairmanship of José Ramos-Horta.

UN; Peacekeeping

31 Oct.

Russia agrees to resume gas supplies to Ukraine over the winter in a deal brokered by the EU.

Russia; Ukraine

31 Oct.

China hosts the fourth Ministerial Conference of the Istanbul Process on the transition for Afghanistan and the broader ‘Heart of Asia’ region.

Afghanistan; Istanbul Process

2 Nov.

Elections held by the Donetsk and Luhansk People’s Republics. Ukrainian President Poroshenko says that they are ‘a gross violation’ of the Minsk Protocol.

Ukraine; Elections

2 Nov.

Over 300 members of the Sunni Albu Nimr tribe are executed by IS militants in Anbar Province, western Iraq.

Iraq; IS

2 Nov.

The death toll surpasses 250 from fighting between loyalist troops and Islamist militias in Benghazi, Libya, since an offensive launched by Khalifa Hifter began two weeks previously. Battles between loyalist forces and militias result in another 140 deaths near the capital Tripoli.

Libya

5 Nov.

US President Obama orders 1500 more troops into Iraq.

Iraq; USA

7 Nov.

Chinese State Councillor Yang Jiechi and Japanese National Security Adviser Yachi Shotaro reach a four-point agreement in Beijing aimed at improving bilateral relations.

China; Japan

9 Nov.

Start of the 2014 Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing. Chinese President Xi and US President Obama discuss closer cooperation in anti-terrorism activities.

Asia–Pacific; APEC

11 Nov.

The commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Aerospace Force, Brigadier General Amir Ali Hajizadeh, confirms that Iran provided missile production plants and training to Syria and the Lebanon-based militant group Hezbollah.

Iran; Syria

12 Nov.

Russia agrees to supply Iran with two additional nuclear reactors at the Bushehr site, with the possibility of six more in the future. Russia will supply the uranium fuel for the reactors thereby reducing Iran’s ‘practical needs’ for domestic uranium enrichment.

Iran; Russia

13 Nov.

The delegations of the Sudanese Government and the Sudan People Liberation Movement North (SPLM-N) hold their first direct meeting as part of the seventh round of negotiations in Addis Ababa.

Sudan; Ethiopia

14 Nov.

Sweden releases a sonar image it says is proof that a foreign submarine entered its waters in Oct.

Russia; Sweden

18 Nov.

The UN General Assembly’s Third Committee approves a resolution that urges the Security Council to consider referring North Korea to the International Criminal Court for alleged crimes against humanity. Two days later, North Korea threatens to conduct another nuclear test explosion in response to the resolution.

North Korea; UN

19 Nov.

The UN assesses the number of foreign terrorist fighters in the Syria and Iraq conflicts to have grown to over 15 000 people from 81 countries.

Iraq; Syria

19 Nov.

In a statement to the OSCE Forum for Security Co-operation, the Russian delegation states that a ‘crisis of confidence in the area of arms control and confidence- and security-building measures’ exists.

Russia; OSCE

20 Nov.

Kenyan security forces cross into Somalia and kill 100 members of al-Shabab.

Kenya; Somalia

24 Nov.

The negotiations between Iran and the E3/EU+3 on Iran’s nuclear programme fail to reach a comprehensive agreement following the interim deal signed in Geneva in Nov. 2013. The parties express confidence that remaining sticking points can be resolved, and agree a seven-month extension to the talks.

Iran’s nuclear programme

24 Nov.

Boko Haram captures the north-eastern Nigerian town of Damasak, killing 50 and forcing more than 3000 to flee across the border into Niger.

Nigeria; Boko Haram

28 Nov.

The Libyan army launches an offensive to recapture Derna and push Libya Dawn out of western Libya.

Libya

30 Nov.

Combat aircraft from US-led coalition carry out as many as 30 airstrikes overnight against IS militants in and around the group’s de facto capital in the city of Raqqa, north-eastern Syria.

IS; Airstrikes

30 Nov.

It is announced that 97.8 per cent of Syria’s declared chemical agents have been destroyed either on board the US vessel Cape Ray or at commercial facilities in Finland, Germany, the UK and the USA.

Syria; Chemical weapons

1 Dec.

The UN Secretary General’s Special Representative for Iraq, Nickolay Mladenov, reports that nearly 12 000 people have been killed and nearly 22 000 wounded in Iraq since the beginning of 2014.

Iraq; UN

1 Dec.

The UN World Food Programme suspends a food programme for 1.7 million Syrian refugees after donor countries fail to meet their commitments.

Syria; UN

1‑5 Dec.

The 19th Conference of the States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) takes place in The Hague.

Chemical weapons

2 Dec.

The Iraqi Government and the leadership of the Kurdistan Regional Government sign a deal on sharing Iraq’s oil wealth and military resources, amid hopes that the agreement will help to reunite the country in the face of the common threat represented by IS.

Iraq; Kurds

3 Dec.

NATO Foreign Ministers meet in Belgium to discuss the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine and the IS insurgency in Iraq.

Ukraine; NATO; IS

3 Dec.

Donald Tusk, the President of the European Council, and Jens Stoltenberg, the Secretary General of NATO, state that Russian actions have undermined Euro–Atlantic stability.

EU; Russia; NATO

3 Dec.

Start of the annual plenary of the 2014 Wassenaar Arrangement in Vienna, Austria, which promotes transparency and the exchange of information and views on transfers of conventional arms and related dual-use goods and technologies.

Arms Trade

7 Dec.

North Korea denies that it is behind the cyber attack on Sony Picture’s computer systems.

Cybersecurity

8 Dec.

The UN seeks $16.4 billion to fund humanitarian assistance programmes in 2015 with Syria, Iraq, Sudan and South Sudan the areas of greatest need.

UN; Humanitarian aid

8‑9 Dec.

Austria hosts the third International Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons in Vienna. Two of the nuclear weapons states—the UK and the USA— attend the conference. The participants endorse a pledge, issued by the Austrian Government, to ‘fill the legal gap for the prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons’.

WMD

9 Dec.

Publication of the UN Secretary-General’s report ‘Implementation of the recommendations of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations’.

UN; Peacekeeping

11 Dec.

The IAEA Board of Governors endorses a request for the IAEA to extend its monitoring and verification activities in Iran under a Joint Plan of Action agreed between Iran and six other countries.

Iran; IAEA

11 Dec.

US President Obama orders the closing of the last US-run detention facility in Afghanistan at Bagram Airfield. The US Navy initiates the operation of laser weapons to protect ships deployed in the Persian Gulf. Both houses of the US Congress unanimously authorize a $50 million aid package to Ukraine including mainly non-lethal equipment such as UAVs and radar systems, but also lethal weapons in the form of anti-tank missiles.

Afghanistan; Ukraine; USA; aid; laser weapons;

12 Dec.

The UN Security Council reaffirms its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and national unity of Afghanistan.

Afghanistan; UN

12 Dec.

The chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) halts investigations into war crimes in Darfur, Sudan for lack of support from the UN Security Council.

Sudan; ICC

13 Dec.

India and Russia sign deals on infrastructure, nuclear energy and defence.

India; Russia

15 Dec.

The UN reports that South Sudan has endured violence and conflict over the past year with no peace agreement in sight. The UN mission continues to shelter over 100 000 civilians in nine UN bases across the country.

South Sudan; UN

15 Dec.

At the 2014 UN Climate Change Conference held in Lima, Peru, states agree that while all countries must cap their emissions, only those who are ‘ready to do so’ are required to submit reduction plans by Mar. 2015.

UN; Climate change

15 Dec.

Authorized under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Denmark becomes the first country to officially submit a claim on the North Pole.

Denmark; North Pole; UNCLOS

17 Dec.

US President Obama and Cuban President Raul Castro announce moves to normalize diplomatic relations between the two countries, severed for more than 50 years.

Cuba; USA

17‑18 Dec.

The EU removes Hamas from its list of terrorist organizations. The following day, it imposes sanctions on Russian-occupied Crimea by banning investments and tourism in the region and halting oil explorations.

EU; Crimea; Hamas

19 Dec.

US President Obama imposes additional sanctions on Russian-controlled Crimea by an executive order forbidding exports of US goods and services to the region.

USA; Crimea

19‑23 Dec.

The US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) concludes that North Korea orchestrated the cyber attack on Sony Pictures. North Korea rejects the claims and blames the USA after suffering a lengthy internet shutdown that experts say was probably caused by a cyber attack.

Cybersecurity

23 Dec.

The Parliament of Ukraine removes the country’s legislative block on forming military alliances, allowing the government to push forward with plans to apply for NATO membership.

Ukraine; NATO

24 Dec.

The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)—establishing international standards for regulating the trade in conventional arms and preventing the illicit trade in weapons—enters into force

Arms Trade Treaty

28 Dec.

A formal ceremony in Kabul marks the end of the International Security Assistance Force’s (ISAF) mission, leaving full responsibility for security across the country with the 350 000-strong Afghan forces. Officials say a ‘non-NATO’ contingent of US forces will participate in force protection, logistical support and counterterrorism activities.

Afghanistan; NATO; ISAF

29 Dec.

In the latest advance in Operation Indian Ocean, Somali government forces assisted by African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) troops capture seven towns in the central Hiran province from al-Shabab.

Somalia; African Union

29 Dec.

Arrival of the first of four US navy Littoral Combat Ships in Singapore as part of the USA’s ‘rebalance’ policy and US efforts to maintain a ‘robust presence’ across the Asia–Pacific region.

Singapore; USA

31 Dec.

UN Mission in Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) completes its reconfiguration process and redeploys civilian, police and military personnel from the west to the east of the country in support of more robust and effective operations in areas affected by armed conflict.

DRC; UN

Citation (MLA):
Chamberlain, Nigel, and Ian Davis. "Annex C. Chronology 2014." SIPRI Yearbook. SIPRI. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2016. Web. 21 Apr. 2019. <http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780198737810/sipri-9780198737810-chapter-18.xml>.
Citation (APA):
Chamberlain, N., & Davis, I. (2016). Annex C. Chronology 2014. In SIPRI, SIPRI Yearbook 2015: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 Apr. 2019, from http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780198737810/sipri-9780198737810-chapter-18.xml
Citation (Chicago):
Chamberlain, Nigel, and Ian Davis. "Annex C. Chronology 2014." In SIPRI Yearbook 2015: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, SIPRI. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016). Retrieved 21 Apr. 2019, from http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780198737810/sipri-9780198737810-chapter-18.xml
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