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Contents

SIPRI Yearbook 2018

SIPRI Yearbook 2018

IV. Controls on intangible transfers of technology and additive manufacturing

Chapter:
10. Dual-use and arms trade controls
Source:
SIPRI Yearbook 2018
Author(s):
Dan Smith

Controls on transfers of conventional arms and dual-use items apply not just to tangible transfers—that is movements of physical goods—but also intangible transfers of certain types of technology and software. These transfers, generally referred to as intangible transfers of technology (ITT), include the electronic or oral transfers of software, technical data, knowledge and technical assistance. Many of the physical items that are the subject of arms and dual-use export controls are far less useful to possess if the owner does not also have access to related software, technical data, knowledge or technical assistance. Controlling ITT is thus widely viewed as an essential component of a state’s export control system. As a result, the main export control regimes, the controls of the European Union (EU), and United Nations and EU arms embargoes all include requirements to impose and enforce controls on different types of ITT. However, controls on ITT pose a particular set of problems, both for regulators when seeking to detect illicit transfers and for companies and research institutes when seeking to comply with regulations.

Citation (MLA):
Smith, Dan. "10. Dual-use and arms trade controls." SIPRI Yearbook. SIPRI. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2016. Web. 19 Dec. 2018. <http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780198821557/sipri-9780198821557-chapter-10-div1-020.xml>.
Citation (APA):
Smith, D. (2016). 10. Dual-use and arms trade controls. In SIPRI, SIPRI Yearbook 2018: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 19 Dec. 2018, from http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780198821557/sipri-9780198821557-chapter-10-div1-020.xml
Citation (Chicago):
Smith, Dan. "10. Dual-use and arms trade controls." In SIPRI Yearbook 2018: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, SIPRI. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016). Retrieved 19 Dec. 2018, from http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780198821557/sipri-9780198821557-chapter-10-div1-020.xml
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