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Contents

SIPRI Yearbook 2010

SIPRI Yearbook 2010

II. Regional patterns

Chapter:
2. Armed conflict, crime and criminal violence
Source:
SIPRI Yearbook 2010
Author(s):
Lotta Harbom, Peter Wallensteen

In 2009 seven major armed conflicts were recorded for Asia, making it the region with the highest number for the seventh consecutive year. There were four major armed conflicts in Africa, three each in the Americas and the Middle East, and, for the second year running, none in Europe.

II. Regional patterns

Figure 2A.1. Regional distribution and total number of major armed conflicts, 2000–2009

Africa was the region with the most conflicts in the 10-year period 2000–2009, with 12 major armed conflicts recorded (see figure 2A.2). During the first seven years of the 2000s there was a sharp decline in the number of major armed conflicts in the region, falling from eight to one. However, the figure increased in both 2008 and 2009 to reach four in the latter year. Only one of the 12 conflicts was fought between states: Eritrea–Ethiopia. Half of the intrastate conflicts were internationalized at some point, which distinguishes Africa from other regions: elsewhere, external involvement ranged from none (Europe) to 40 per cent (Middle East). All but 1 of the 12 major armed conflicts recorded in Africa were fought over governmental power.

The Americas has been the scene of three major armed conflicts during the decade 2000–2009. The number has slowly climbed from zero in 2000 and in 2009 it stood at three. All three conflicts were intrastate and concerned governmental power.

Nine major armed conflicts were recorded for Asia in 2000–2009. Apart from a dip in 2004, when four conflicts were active, the annual number of major armed conflicts has varied between six and seven throughout the period, with seven recorded in 2009. Two of the Asian conflicts—those between the Government of the Philippines and the rebel Communist Party of the Philippines and between the Government of India and Kashmir insurgents—were active in all years of the period. The region saw one interstate conflict fought over governmental power: India–Pakistan. The remaining eight intrastate conflicts were equally divided between the two types of incompatibility.

II. Regional patterns

Figure 2A.2. Timeline of major armed conflicts, 2000–2009

When only the name of a country is given, this indicates a conflict over government. In the case of conflict over territory, the name of the contested territory appears in parentheses after the country name. The years given are those in the period 2000–2009 in which the major armed conflict was active (i.e. resulted in 25 or more battle-related deaths). Many of these conflicts were also active in years prior to 2000, and may be active again in future years.

a This is the conflict between the US Government and al-Qaeda.

Only one of the 30 major armed conflicts active in the 2000–2009 period was fought in Europe: that between the Russian Government and the self-proclaimed Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Since 2008 no major armed conflict has been recorded for Europe.5

The Middle East accounted for five major armed conflicts in 2000–2009. There have been three active conflicts in the region in each year apart from 2002, when two were active. The same three conflicts have been active since 2004: Iraq, Israel (Palestinian territories) and Turkey (Kurdistan). Turkey (Kurdistan) was active in all years of the period. The one interstate conflict recorded in the Middle East was that between Iraq and the USA and its allies. The remaining four were fought within states; two over government and two over territory.

Notes:

(5) While fighting is continuing in and around Chechnya, this is viewed as taking place in the context of a new conflict, fought over a larger territory, termed the Caucasus Emirate by the rebels. Fighting in this conflict has not reached the threshold of 1000 battle-related deaths in a year, and so it is not coded as a major armed conflict. See also Harbom, L. and Wallensteen, P., ‘Patterns of major armed conflicts, 1999–2008’, SIPRI Yearbook 2009, pp. 73–74.

Citation (MLA):
Harbom, Lotta, and Peter Wallensteen. "2. Armed conflict, crime and criminal violence." SIPRI Yearbook. SIPRI. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2012. Web. 30 Aug. 2016. <http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780199581122/sipri-9780199581122-div1-18.xml>.
Citation (APA):
Harbom, L., & Wallensteen, P. (2012). 2. Armed conflict, crime and criminal violence. In SIPRI, SIPRI Yearbook 2010: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 30 Aug. 2016, from http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780199581122/sipri-9780199581122-div1-18.xml
Citation (Chicago):
Harbom, Lotta, and Peter Wallensteen. "2. Armed conflict, crime and criminal violence." In SIPRI Yearbook 2010: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, SIPRI. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012). Retrieved 30 Aug. 2016, from http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780199581122/sipri-9780199581122-div1-18.xml