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Contents

SIPRI Yearbook 2012

SIPRI Yearbook 2012

IV. French nuclear forces

Chapter:
7. World nuclear forces
Source:
SIPRI Yearbook 2012
Author(s):
Shannon N. Kile, Phillip Schell, Hans M. Kristensen, Vitaly Fedchenko, Alexander Glaser, Zia Mian International Panel on Fissile Materials

France’s nuclear forces consist of aircraft and nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs), carrying a total of about 300 warheads (see table 7.5). The backbone of the French nuclear deterrent consists of four Triomphant class SSBNs. The newest boat in the class, Le Terrible, is equipped with 16 M51.1 submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs).1 The M51.1 is a three-stage, solid-fuelled missile that can carry up to six TN-75 warheads. The other three Triomphant class SSBNs will be rearmed with the M51.1 by 2017, replacing the M45 SLBM.2 The upgrade of Le Vigilant was expected to be completed in 2011, and those of Le Triomphant and Le Téméraire in 2012 and 2017, respectively.3 An improved version of the M51.1, the M51.2, is designed to carry the new Tête Nucléaire Océanique (TNO, Oceanic Nuclear Warhead) with selectable yields of up to 150 kilotons, which is believed to be housed in a new re-entry vehicle and will replace the M51.1 after 2015.4

Citation (MLA):
Kile, Shannon N., Phillip Schell, Hans M. Kristensen, Vitaly Fedchenko, Alexander Glaser, and Zia Mian International Panel on Fissile Materials. "7. World nuclear forces." SIPRI Yearbook. SIPRI. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2016. Web. 18 Dec. 2018. <http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780199650583/sipri-9780199650583-div1-45.xml>.
Citation (APA):
Kile, S., Schell, P., Kristensen, H., Fedchenko, V., Glaser, A., & Mian International Panel on Fissile Materials, Z. (2016). 7. World nuclear forces. In SIPRI, SIPRI Yearbook 2012: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 Dec. 2018, from http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780199650583/sipri-9780199650583-div1-45.xml
Citation (Chicago):
Kile, Shannon N., Phillip Schell, Hans M. Kristensen, Vitaly Fedchenko, Alexander Glaser, and Zia Mian International Panel on Fissile Materials. "7. World nuclear forces." In SIPRI Yearbook 2012: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, SIPRI. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016). Retrieved 18 Dec. 2018, from http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780199650583/sipri-9780199650583-div1-45.xml
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