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2. Armed conflict and peace processes »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198839996.003.0002

Chapter: 2. Armed conflict and peace processes

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2019

Author: Ian Davies

IanDaviesOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20190605.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen2. Armed conflict and peace processesOverviewThis chapter describes developments in 2018 in armed conflicts and peace processes. It is structured regionally (the Americas, Asia and Oceania, Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa). Key examples are discussed based on academic and technical publications, news reports and conflict-related databases. The chapter does not cover all organized armed violence and largely excludes criminal violence, the main exception being some events in the Americas, discussed insectionII.SectionIexplores definitions and

4. Armed conflict and peace processes in Asia and Oceania »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198869207.003.0004

Chapter: 4. Armed conflict and peace processes in Asia and Oceania

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2020

Author: Ian Davis

IanDavisOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20200603.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen4. Armed conflict and peace processes in Asia and OceaniaOverviewSeven countries in Asia and Oceania experienced active armed conflicts in 2019—three in South Asia: Afghanistan (major internationalized civil war), India (high-intensity interstate border and subnational armed conflicts) and Pakistan (high-intensity interstate border and subnational armed conflicts); and four in South East Asia: Indonesia (low-intensity subnational armed conflict), Myanmar (high-intensity subnational armed conflict), the Philippines (high-intensity subnational armed conflict) and Thailand (low-intensity subnational armed conflict). Two emerging trends remained cause for concern in 2019: (a)

4. Armed conflict and peace processes in Asia and Oceania »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780192847577.003.0004

Chapter: 4. Armed conflict and peace processes in Asia and Oceania

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2021

Author: Ian Davis

IanDavisOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20210602.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen4. Armed conflict and peace processes in Asia and OceaniaOverviewSeven countries in Asia and Oceania experienced active armed conflicts in 2020 (the same as in 2019)—three in South Asia (sectionII): Afghanistan (major internationalized civil war), India (high-intensity interstate border and subnational armed conflicts) and Pakistan (low-intensity interstate border and subnational armed conflicts); and four low-intensity subnational armed conflicts in South East Asia (sectionIII): Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines and Thailand. Total conflict-related fatalities in Asia and Oceania fell by

5. Armed conflict and peace processes in Europe »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198869207.003.0005

Chapter: 5. Armed conflict and peace processes in Europe

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2020

Author: Ian Davis

IanDavisOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20200603.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen5. Armed conflict and peace processes in EuropeOverviewOne armed conflict was active in Europe in 2019: the low-intensity internationalized, subnational armed conflict in Ukraine. Since April 2014 this armed conflict between Ukrainian Government forces and Russian-backed separatists has led to about 13 000 deaths (at least 3330 civilians and approximately 9670 combatants), but since 2018 combat-related deaths have been much lower: estimated at 405 in 2019, down from 886 in 2018.Political changes in Ukraine during 2019, and especially the presidential victory by Volodymyr Zelensky

5. Armed conflict and peace processes in Europe »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780192847577.003.0005

Chapter: 5. Armed conflict and peace processes in Europe

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2021

Author: Ian Davis

IanDavisOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20210602.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen5. Armed conflict and peace processes in EuropeOverviewTwo armed conflicts were active in Europe in 2020: the interstate border conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan for control of Nagorno-Karabakh, which escalated into high-intensity conflict during the year, and the ongoing low-intensity internationalized, subnational armed conflict in Ukraine. Elsewhere in Europe, tensions persisted in largely quiescent but unresolved conflicts in the post-Soviet space, the Western Balkans and Cyprus. There were also persistent tensions between Russia and large parts of the rest of Europe, as well as

7. Armed conflict and peace processes in sub-Saharan Africa »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198869207.003.0007

Chapter: 7. Armed conflict and peace processes in sub-Saharan Africa

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2020

Author: Ian Davis

IanDavisOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20200603.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen7. Armed conflict and peace processes in sub-Saharan AfricaOverviewThere were at least 15 countries with active armed conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa in 2019: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan. Eight were low-intensity, subnational armed conflicts, and seven were high-intensity armed conflicts (Nigeria, Somalia, the DRC, Burkina Faso, Mali, South Sudan and Cameroon). Almost all the armed conflicts were internationalized, including as a

7. Armed conflict and peace processes in sub-Saharan Africa »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780192847577.003.0007

Chapter: 7. Armed conflict and peace processes in sub-Saharan Africa

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2021

Author: Ian Davis

IanDavisOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20210602.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen7. Armed conflict and peace processes in sub-Saharan AfricaOverviewThere were at least 20 states (out of a total of 49 states) with active armed conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa in 2020: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. Ten were low-intensity, subnational armed conflicts, and 10 were high-intensity armed conflicts. Except for CAR and Somalia, all the other

3. Armed conflict and peace processes in the Americas »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198869207.003.0003

Chapter: 3. Armed conflict and peace processes in the Americas

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2020

Author: Marina Caparini

MarinaCapariniOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20200603.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen3. Armed conflict and peace processes in the AmericasOverviewIn 2019 non-international armed conflicts, as defined under international humanitarian law, were present in two countries in the Americas: Colombia and Mexico. Implementation of the 2016 Colombian peace agreement with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia–People’s Army continued throughout 2019. At the same time the Government of Colombia was involved in several non-international armed conflicts with non-signatory non-state armed groups, while there were additional conflicts among such groups. The fragmentation and growing presence of these groups

3. Armed conflict and peace processes in the Americas »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780192847577.003.0003

Chapter: 3. Armed conflict and peace processes in the Americas

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2021

Author: Marina Caparini

MarinaCapariniOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20210602.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen3. Armed conflict and peace processes in the AmericasOverviewThe Americas presented a complex and mixed picture for peace during 2020, with worsening conflict in certain countries, but less violence in some, partly as a result of Covid‑19 pandemic lockdowns. In others armed violence continued at a similar level to that in 2019. Two countries—Colombia and Mexico—had several parallel non-international armed conflicts on their territories.Implementation of the 2016 peace accord between the Government of Colombia and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia–People’s Army (Fuerzas

6. Armed conflict and peace processes in the Middle East and North Africa »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198869207.003.0006

Chapter: 6. Armed conflict and peace processes in the Middle East and North Africa

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2020

Author: Ian Davis

IanDavisOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20200603.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen6. Armed conflict and peace processes in the Middle East and North AfricaOverviewThere were seven countries with active armed conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa in 2019 (the same as in 2018): Egypt (high-intensity, subnational armed conflict), Iraq (internationalized civil war), Israel (low-intensity, extrastate armed conflict), Libya (internationalized civil war), Syria (major internationalized civil war), Turkey (low-intensity, extrastate and subnational armed conflict) and Yemen (major internationalized civil war). All the armed conflicts had fewer fatalities than in 2018, except for Libya. Many