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1. Aspects of the Conflict in Syria »

Type: chapter

Chapter: 1. Aspects of the Conflict in Syria

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2014

Author: Ian Anthony

OverviewSince March 2011, when street protests in the south of Syria led to an armed response by the Syrian Government, the country's rapid descent into armed conflict has produced some of the most destructive and intense fighting any-where in the world. United Nations data from mid-2013 indicates that more than 100 000 people had been killed in the fighting to that point. Subsequent estimates by non-governmental analysts suggest that, by the end of 2013, the death toll was in excess of 130 000.The following three essays limit themselves to issues that, to a certain extent, fall outside

1. Aspects of the conflict in Syria »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198712596.003.0002

Chapter: 1. Aspects of the conflict in Syria

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2014

Author: Ian Anthony, Ghassan Baliki, Pieter D. Wezeman, John Hart

IanAnthonyGhassanBalikiPieter D.WezemanJohnHartOxChapML2.27OUP TCI20140403.0Medicine-USSIPRI Yearbook Series1. Aspects of the conflict in SyriaOverviewSince March 2011, when street protests in the south of Syria led to an armed response by the Syrian Government, the country's rapid descent into armed conflict has produced some of the most destructive and intense fighting any-where in the world. United Nations data from mid-2013 indicates that more than 100 000 people had been killed in the fighting to that point. Subsequent estimates by non-governmental analysts suggest that, by the end of

13. Chemical and biological security threats »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198737810.003.0013

Chapter: 13. Chemical and biological security threats

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2015

Author: John Hart, Peter Clevestig

JohnHartPeterClevestigOxChapML2.27OUP TCI20150902.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen13. Chemical and biological security threatsOverviewHealth and security concerns raised by the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa pushed global public health towards the top of the international security agenda in 2014 (seesectionI). Shortcomings in national and international preparedness for managing emerging infectious disease threats were evident, and the response capacities of some national public health systems in West Africa and of international organizations (e.g. Médecins Sans Frontières) were stretched beyond their limits. Furthermore, delays and inefficiencies in

18. Chemical and biological security threats »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198787280.003.0018

Chapter: 18. Chemical and biological security threats

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2016

Author: John Hart

JohnHartOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20160601.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen18. Chemical and biological security threatsOverviewIn 2015 the states parties to the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) met at the last intersessional annual meetings before the Eighth Review Conference to be held in November 2016 (seesectionI). The three standing agenda items for the intersessional meetings were cooperation and assistance, a review of developments in science and technology, and the strengthening of national implementation. The special biennial topic for 2015 was on implementation of Article VII of the BTWC, which

13. Chemical and biological security threats »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198811800.003.0013

Chapter: 13. Chemical and biological security threats

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2017

Author: John Hart

JohnHartOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20170607.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen13. Chemical and biological security threatsOverviewIn 2016 there were continued instances (alleged and confirmed) of the use of chemical weapons in the armed conflicts in Iraq and Syria. Governments continued to target Islamic State (IS) including suspected chemical weapon-related infrastructure in connection with the 2016 Mosul offensive. The United Nations Security Council remained split over whether the Syrian Government has engaged in chemical warfare.The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the body that implements the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention, sought

8. Chemical and biological security threats »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198821557.003.0008

Chapter: 8. Chemical and biological security threats

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2018

Author: Dan Smith

OxChapML2.50OUP TCI20180606.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen8. Chemical and biological security threatsOverviewThe United Nations, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and governments continued to evaluate allegations of chemical weapon (CW) use in Iraq and Syria in 2017. Both the UN Security Council and the OPCW Executive Council remained deadlocked on the question of Syrian Government responsibility for CW use (seesectionI), including with regard to the use of sarin at Khan Shaykhun on 4 April. This attack prompted the United States to launch retaliatory Tomahawk cruise missile

8. Chemical and biological security threats »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198839996.003.0008

Chapter: 8. Chemical and biological security threats

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2019

Author: Caitríona McLeish, Filippa Lentzos

CaitríonaMcLeishFilippaLentzosOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20190605.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen8. Chemical and biological security threatsOverviewAllegations of chemical weapon use by Syria continued to dominate the work of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in 2018. The Declaration Assessment Team continued its work to resolve gaps, inconsistencies and discrepancies in Syria’s initial declaration, and the Fact-finding Mission in Syria continued to collect and analyse information in relation to allegations of use. Among the allegations was an attack in Douma on 7 April 2018 that prompted the United States, the

12. Chemical and biological security threats »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780198869207.003.0012

Chapter: 12. Chemical and biological security threats

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2020

Author: Caitríona Mcleish, Filippa Lentzos

CaitríonaMcleishFilippaLentzosOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20200603.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen12. Chemical and biological security threatsOverviewAllegations of chemical weapons use by Syria continued to be investigated by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in 2019. The Declaration Assessment Team continued its work to resolve gaps, inconsistencies and discrepancies in Syria’s initial declaration, and the Fact-finding Mission (FFM) in Syria continued to collect and analyse information in relation to allegations of use. The FFM reported in March 2019 that there were ‘reasonable grounds’ for believing that a chemical weapon attack

12. Chemical and biological security threats »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780192847577.003.0012

Chapter: 12. Chemical and biological security threats

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2021

Author: Filippa Lentzo, Caitríona Mcleish

FilippaLentzoCaitríonaMcleishOxChapML2.50OUP TCI20210602.0SIPRIMedicine-UKSIPRI Yearbook SeriesNewgen12. Chemical and biological security threatsOverviewIn 2020 the Covid‑19 pandemic changed the world in a way that very few had anticipated.SectionIoutlines the timeline of the pandemic; the impacts on people’s health and on society; competing theories on the origin of the virus; studies into the origins; and its implications for global biosecurity architecture. By the end of 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) had received reports of over 82 million cases of Covid‑19 worldwide, and there had been over

3. Civilian roles in peace operations »

Type: chapter

DOI: 10.1093/sipri/9780199581122.003.0004

Chapter: 3. Civilian roles in peace operations

Source: SIPRI Yearbook 2010

Author: Sharon Wiharta, Stephanie Blair

SharonWihartaStephanieBlairCivilians play an ever more central role in multidimensional and integrated peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations. Although the civilian dimension has been strengthened by a range of recent institutional innovations, peace operations are plagued by the persistent challenges of deploying the appropriate people at the right time and in the appropriate numbers. The UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) illustrates the importance of addressing the civilian capacity gap, while taking into account the interrelation of such factors as financing peace operations and recruitment. It also highlights the need for a critical analysis of the purpose and objectives of