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Contents

SIPRI Yearbook 2021

SIPRI Yearbook 2021

About the authors

Chapter:
Source:
SIPRI Yearbook 2021
Author(s):
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

  • Dr Virginie Baudais (France) is a Senior Researcher and the Deputy Director of SIPRI’s Sahel/West Africa Programme. Prior to joining SIPRI in August 2019, she worked for two United Nations peacekeeping operations, in Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, as a Political Officer. Prior to her experience with the UN, she worked as a teaching assistant at Toulouse 1 Capitole University. Baudais graduated from Sciences Po Toulouse and holds a PhD in Political Science from Toulouse 1 Capitole University. Her research interests focus on the Sahel, peacebuilding, security, governance and state reform. Her recent publications include Niger: Armed Force Politics and Counterterrorism (Oxford Research Encyclopedia, Feb. 2021); and Conflict Mediation and Peacebuilding in the Sahel: The Role of Maghreb Countries in an African Framework, SIPRI Policy Paper (Jan. 2021, co-author).

  • Dr Lucie Béraud-Sudreau (France) is the Director of SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme, where her work focuses on the dynamics and implications of global military spending, arms production and transfers. Previously, she was a Research Fellow for Defence Economics and Procurements at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS). Her recent publications include ‘Weighing giants: Taking stock of the expansion of China’s defence industry’, Defence and Peace Economics (2021, co-author); French Arms Exports: The Business of Sovereignty (Routledge, 2020); ‘Mapping the international presence of the world’s largest arms companies’, SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security (Dec. 2020, co-author); and ‘Emerging suppliers in the global arms trade’, SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security (Dec. 2020, co-author).

  • Kolja Brockmann (Germany) is a Researcher in SIPRI’s Dual-use and Arms Trade Control Programme. He joined SIPRI in 2017 and conducts research in the fields of export control, non-proliferation and technology governance. He focuses on the multilateral export control regimes, controls on emerging technologies, particularly additive manufacturing, and intangible transfers of technology. Previously, Brockmann did an internship at the German Federal Office for Economic Affairs and Export Control (BAFA). He received his MA with distinction in Non-Proliferation and International Security from King’s College London. His recent publications include ‘Controlling ballistic missile proliferation: Assessing complementarity between the HCOC, MTCR and UNSCR 1540’, HCOC Research Paper (June 2020); and Responsible Artificial Intelligence Research and Innovation for International Peace and Security, SIPRI Report (Nov. 2020, co-author).

  • Mark Bromley (United Kingdom/Sweden) is the Director of SIPRI’s Dual-use and Arms Trade Control Programme, where his work focuses on national, regional and international efforts to regulate the international trade in conventional arms and dual-use items. Previously, he was a Policy Analyst for the British American Security Information Council (BASIC). His recent publications include ‘Sweden’s arms export controls: Balancing support and restraint’, in ed. L. Lustgarten, Law and the Arms Trade: Weapons, Blood and Rules (Hart Publishing, 2020); Reporting on Conventional Arms Transfers and Transfer Controls: Improving Coordination and Increasing Engagement, SIPRI Policy Paper (Aug. 2020, co-author); Detecting, Investigating and Prosecuting Export Control Violations: European Perspectives on Key Challenges and Good Practices, SIPRI Report (Dec. 2019, co-author); and ‘Measuring illicit arms and financial flows: Improving the assessment of Sustainable Development Goal 16’, SIPRI Background Paper (July 2019, co-author).

  • Laura Brunn (Denmark) is a Research Assistant at SIPRI, working on emerging military and security technologies. Her focus is on how emerging military technologies, notably autonomous weapon systems (AWS), affect compliance with—and interpretation of—international humanitarian law (IHL). She has a background in Middle Eastern Studies and International Security and Law, and wrote her master’s thesis on remote warfare’s implications for the protection of civilians, by analysing the United States targeting cycle in its aerial campaign against the Islamic State. Before joining SIPRI, Bruun worked at Airwars in London, where she monitored and assessed civilian casualty reports from US and Russian airstrikes in Syria and Iraq. Besides co-authoring a forthcoming SIPRI report on AWS and IHL (June 2021), her recent publications include Responsible Military Use of Artificial Intelligence: Can the European Union Lead the Way in Developing Best Practice?, SIPRI Report (Nov. 2020, co-author).

  • Dr Marina Caparini (Canada) is a Senior Researcher and Director of SIPRI’s Governance and Society Programme. Her research focuses on inclusive peacebuilding and the nexus between security and development. She works on security sector governance, policing, stabilization and peace operations, and better aligning the shared outcomes of humanitarian assistance, development aid and peacebuilding. Prior to joining SIPRI in December 2016, Caparini held senior positions at the Norwegian Institute for International Affairs, the International Center for Transitional Justice, and the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. She holds a PhD in War Studies from King’s College, University of London.

  • Dr Ian Davis (United Kingdom) is the Executive Editor of the SIPRI Yearbook and an Associate Senior Fellow within Conflict and Peace at SIPRI. From 2014–16 he was the Director of SIPRI’s Editorial, Publications and Library Department. Prior to joining SIPRI, he held several senior positions and worked as an independent human security and arms control consultant. He has a long record of research and publication on international and regional security, and blogs on NATO-related issues. His recent publications include ‘Towards an open and accountable NATO’, in eds I. Shapiro and A. Tooze, Charter of NATO (Yale University Press, 2018); and ‘How much does the UK spend on nuclear weapons?’, BASIC Research Report (Nov. 2018).

  • Dr Tytti Erästö (Finland) is a Senior Researcher in SIPRI’s Nuclear Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-proliferation Programme. Her research interests include the Iran nuclear deal, the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW), efforts to establish a weapons of mass destruction-free zone in the Middle East, United States–Russian arms control treaties, the USA/NATO–Russia missile defence dispute, and the global disarmament and nonproliferation regime more generally. Previously, she worked at the Ploughshares Fund in Washington, DC; the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School; the Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation; and the Tampere Peace Research Institute in Finland. Her recent publications include New Technologies and Nuclear Disarmament: Outlining a Way Forward, SIPRI Report (May 2021); ‘Addressing missile threats in the Middle East and North Africa’, SIPRI Policy Brief (Nov. 2020, co-author); ‘European non-proliferation diplomacy in the shadow of secondary sanctions’, SIPRI Policy Brief (Aug. 2020); and ‘Towards greater nuclear restraint: Raising the threshold for nuclear weapon use’, SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security (May 2020, co-author).

  • Shivan Fazil (Iraq) is a Researcher in SIPRI’s Middle East and North Africa Programme. His work mainly focuses on drivers of conflict, peacebuilding and governance in Iraq, where he has worked for over six years with various organizations, most recently with the United States Institute of Peace. He has also featured in the international media, commenting on Iraq’s social, political and security dynamics and the challenges of governance after the military defeat of the Islamic State. Fazil holds an MSc in Middle Eastern Politics from the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He has just co-edited a book on Youth Identity, Politics and Change in Contemporary Kurdistan, published by Transnational Press London.

  • Vitaly Fedchenko (Russia) is a Senior Researcher in SIPRI’s European Security Programme, responsible for nuclear security issues and the political, technological and educational dimensions of nuclear arms control and nonproliferation. Previously, he was a visiting researcher at SIPRI and worked at the Center for Policy Studies in Russia and the Institute for Applied International Research in Moscow. He is the author or co-author of several publications on nuclear forensics, nuclear security, international non-proliferation and disarmament assistance, nuclear forces and the international nuclear fuel cycle.

  • Annelies Hickendorff (Netherlands) is a Research Assistant in SIPRI’s Sahel/West Africa Programme. She has been involved in multiple studies contributing to a better understanding of local security perceptions in the region. Her latest project assessed the effectiveness of the European Union Training Mission in the Central African Republic (EUTM RCA). Prior to joining SIPRI, she was a Rotary Peace Fellow in African Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Bradford, UK, and worked for various international non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies in Cameroon, Kenya, Mali and Senegal.

  • Shannon N. Kile (United States) is the Director of SIPRI’s Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-proliferation Programme. His principal areas of research are nuclear arms control and non-proliferation, with a special interest in the nuclear programmes of Iran and North Korea. His work also looks at regional security issues related to Iran and the Middle East. He has contributed to numerous SIPRI publications, including chapters on nuclear arms control and nuclear forces and weapon technology for the SIPRI Yearbook since 1994.

  • Matt Korda (Canada) is an Associate Researcher with SIPRI’s Nuclear Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-proliferation Programme and a Research Associate with the Nuclear Information Project at the Federation of American Scientists (FAS). He co-authors the FAS Nuclear Notebook in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists and has contributed chapters on world nuclear forces to the SIPRI Yearbook. Previously, Korda worked for NATO’S Arms Control, Disarmament and WMD Non-Proliferation Centre in Brussels. He received his MA in International Peace & Security from the Department of War Studies at King’s College London, and his research interests and recent publications focus on nuclear deterrence and disarmament, progressive foreign policy, and the nexus between nuclear weapons, climate change and injustice.

  • Hans M. Kristensen (Denmark) is the Director of the Nuclear Information Project at the Federation of American Scientists (FAS) in Washington, DC, and a SIPRI Associate Senior Fellow. He is a frequent consultant to the news media and institutes on nuclear weapon matters, and is co-author of the FAS Nuclear Notebook in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Prior to joining FAS, Kristensen was a consultant to the nuclear programme at the Natural Resources Defense Council, a programme officer at the Nautilus Institute, and a special adviser to the Danish Ministry of Defence. His recent publications include ‘China’s strategic systems and programs’, in China’s Strategic Arsenal: Worldview, Doctrine, and Systems (Georgetown University Press, 2021); ‘British defense review ends nuclear reduction era’ (FAS, Mar. 2021); ‘US deploys new low-yield submarine warhead’ (FAS, Jan. 2020); and ‘Is the Pentagon exaggerating Russia’s tactical nuclear weapons?’ (Forbes.com, May 2019).

  • Alexandra Kuimova (Russia) is a Researcher in SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme. Her areas of research include the monitoring of arms transfers, military spending and the arms industry, as well as foreign and defence policies, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa, Russia and Eastern Europe. Before joining SIPRI, Kuimova was an intern in the Department of New Challenges and Threats at the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. She has also completed summer internships at Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Morocco, and Cairo University, Egypt. Her recent publications include ‘Arms transfers to conflict zones: The case of Nagorno-Karabakh’, SIPRI Topical Backgrounder (Apr. 2021, co-author); ‘Mapping the international presence of the world’s largest arms companies’, SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security (Dec. 2020, co-author); and ‘Understanding Egyptian military expenditure’, SIPRI Background Paper (Oct. 2020).

  • Dr Moritz Kütt (Germany) is a Senior Researcher at the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg, working within the Arms Control and Emerging Technologies research area. In his research, he develops new approaches and innovative tools for verification of nuclear arms control, non-proliferation and disarmament agreements. These approaches and tools seek, in particular, to enable non-nuclear weapon states to participate effectively in such verification activities. Prior to his time in Hamburg, Moritz was a Postdoctoral Research Associate with the Program on Science and Global Security at Princeton University.

  • Dr Filippa Lentzos (Norway) is a Senior Lecturer in Science & International Security at the Department of War Studies and Co-Director of the Centre for Science and Security Studies (CSSS) at King’s College London. She is also an Associate Senior Researcher within Armament and Disarmament at SIPRI, and a Non-Resident Scholar at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS). She serves as a biosecurity columnist at the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, an editor of the social science journal BioSocieties, and as the NGO Coordinator for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. A biologist and social scientist by training, Lentzos has researched and been actively involved in biological disarmament and non-proliferation for nearly 20 years.

  • Dr Jaïr van der Lijn (Netherlands) is the Director of SIPRI’s Peace Operations and Conflict Management Programme. He is also an Associate Fellow at the Radboud University Nijmegen. His research interests include the future of peace operations, their evaluation and factors for success and failure, comprehensive approaches in missions and their relationship with local populations. His recent publications include Assessing the Effectiveness of the United Nations Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Report (2019, lead editor); Towards Legitimate Stability in CAR and the DRC: External Assumptions and Local Perspective, SIPRI Policy Report (Sep. 2019, co-author); and ‘Multilateral peace operations and the challenges of irregular migration and human trafficking’, SIPRI Background Paper (June 2019).

  • Dr Diego Lopes Da Silva (Brazil) is a Researcher in SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme. He holds a PhD in Peace, Defence and International Security Studies from São Paulo State University. His publications have addressed the arms trade, arms production and transparency in military expenditure. Prior to SIPRI, he held research positions at the Institute for Public Policy and International Relations (IPPRI) of the São Paulo State University and at the Latin American Network On Defense And Security (RESDAL). His recent publications include ‘Military spending and the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’, in UNODA Occasional Papers no. 35 (United Nations, Apr. 2020, co-author); and ‘Trends in world military expenditure, 2020’, SIPRI Fact Sheet (Apr. 2021, co-author).

  • Giovanna Maletta (Italy) is a Researcher in SIPRI’s Dual-use and Arms Trade Control Programme. Her research interests include export controls and trade compliance, with a particular focus on the dual-use and arms export control policies of the European Union (EU) and its member states. Her work also involves mapping cooperation and assistance activities in the field of arms transfer and SALW controls and of relevance to the implementation of the Arms Trade Treaty. Further, Maletta coordinates activities related to SIPRI’s role in the EU Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Consortium. Her most recent publications include Supporting Small Arms and Light Weapons Controls through Development Assistance: The Case of sub-Saharan Africa, SIPRI Report (Feb. 2021, co-author); and ‘Seeking a responsible arms trade to reduce human suffering in Yemen’, The International Spectator (Feb. 2021).

  • Alexandra Marksteiner (Austria/Germany) is a Research Assistant in SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme. In this capacity, she collects and analyses data on military spending and the arms industry. Among her areas of research are the international presence of arms companies and the financial value of arms exports, as well as trends in United States and German military expenditure. Prior to joining SIPRI, Marksteiner interned with the Security and Strategy Team at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC. She has also worked for the Atlantic Council, the German Federal Foreign Office and the United Nations Department of Peace Operations. During her graduate studies at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), she focused on the nexus between international security and multilateral cooperation.

  • Dr Caitríona McLeish (United Kingdom) is a Research Analyst on chemical and biological weapons. At the time of writing, she was a Senior Fellow at the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU), University of Sussex, and Co-Director of the Harvard Sussex Program on Chemical and Biological Weapons. The main focus of her work there was the governance of dual-use technologies in regard to the effective implementation of the prohibitions under both the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological Weapons Convention. This included consideration of how to create effective mechanisms to prevent misuse of legitimate science and technology and examining roles that have and might be played in chemical and biological disarmament efforts by actors outside of government.

  • Dr Zia Mian (United States) is the Co-Director of the Program on Science and Global Security at Princeton University’s School of Public and International Affairs. A physicist, his work focuses on nuclear weapons non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament, and nuclear energy issues. He is co-editor of the journal Science & Global Security and co-chair of the International Panel on Fissile Materials. He is also a co-founder and member of the steering committee of the Physicists Coalition for Nuclear Threat Reduction and serves on the board of the Arms Control Association. His recent work has focused on supporting the implementation of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. He has contributed to the SIPRI Yearbook on fissile materials since 2007.

  • Dr Pavel Podvig (Russia) is a Researcher in the Program on Science and Global Security at Princeton University and a Senior Researcher at the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR). He began his work on security issues at the Center for Arms Control Studies at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), which was the first independent research organization in Russia dedicated to analysis of technical issues related to arms control and disarmament. Podvig directs his own research project, Russian Nuclear Forces (RussianForces.org). He is also a co-editor of Science & Global Security and a member of the International Panel on Fissile Materials.

  • Nivedita Raju (India) is an Associate Researcher with SIPRI, specializing in space security. Previously, she was a Research Fellow at Open Lunar Foundation and a contributing member of the Manual on International Law Applicable to Military Uses of Outer Space (MILAMOS) Project at McGill University. Raju was also Deputy Representative to the United States Federal Aviation Administration’s Center of Excellence for Commercial Space Transportation, where she directed research on regulating cross-border suborbital flights between Canada and the USA. Her recent publications include ‘A proposal for a ban on destructive anti-satellite testing: A role for the European Union?’, EU Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Consortium (Apr. 2021); and ‘Transparency and confidence-building measures for lunar security’, Open Lunar Foundation (May 2021).

  • Luke Richards (United Kingdom) is a Research Assistant at SIPRI, working on emerging military and security technologies. His research interests lie at the intersection of science, technology, innovation, governance and international affairs. Prior to joining SIPRI, he worked on cyber issues at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), while finishing an MSc in Science and Technology Policy at the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU), University of Sussex. His recent publications include Responsible Artificial Intelligence Research and Innovation for International Peace and Security, SIPRI Report (Nov. 2020, co-author); and Responsible Military Use of Artificial Intelligence: Can the European Union Lead the Way in Developing Best Practice?, SIPRI Report (Nov. 2020, co-author).

  • Lucile Robin (France) is a Research Assistant in SIPRI’s Dual-use and Arms Trade Control Programme. Her research is focused on the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), export controls and small arms and light weapons (SALW) controls. She also contributes to the SIPRI Mapping ATT-Relevant Cooperation and Assistance Activities Database. Her recent publications include Supporting Small Arms and Light Weapons Controls through Development Assistance: The Case of sub-Saharan Africa, SIPRI Report (Feb. 2021, co-author); and ‘Post-shipment control measures: European approaches to on-site inspections of exported military materiel’, SIPRI Background Paper (Dec. 2020, co-author).

  • Timo Smit (Netherlands/Sweden) is a Researcher in SIPRI’s Peace Operations and Conflict Management Programme. He is in charge of SIPRI’s database on multilateral peace operations and conducts research on trends in peace operations and various related thematic issues. Before joining SIPRI in 2014, he worked for the European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) and the NATO Parliamentary Assembly. His recent research has focused on, among other things, civilian crisis management and the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP).

  • Dan Smith (Sweden/United Kingdom) is the Director of SIPRI. He has a long record of research and publication on a wide range of conflict and peace issues. His current work focuses on the relationship between climate change and insecurity, on peace and security issues in the Middle East and on global conflict trends. He served four years in the United Nations Peacebuilding Fund Advisory Group, two of which (2010–11) were as the Chair. From 2014 to 2017 he was also a Professor of Peace & Conflict at the University of Manchester. He is the author of successive editions of atlases of politics, war and peace, and the Middle East, and of a blog on international politics.

  • Dr Nan Tian (South Africa) is a Researcher in SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme, where he leads the Military Expenditure Project. His regions of expertise are Africa and China, with research interests focused on the causes and impact of military expenditure and civil conflict, and the issues relating to transparency and accountability in military budgeting, spending and procurement. Previously, he was a Macroeconomics Lecturer at the University of Cape Town. He has published in Defence and Peace Economics; The Economics of Peace and Security Journal; and Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy.

  • Dr Petr Topychkanov (Russia) is a Senior Researcher in SIPRI’s Nuclear Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-proliferation Programme, working on issues related to nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament, arms control and the impact of new technologies on strategic stability. Prior to joining SIPRI in 2018, he held the position of Senior Researcher at the Centre for International Security at the Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences. From 2006–17, Topychkanov was a Fellow at the Carnegie Moscow Center’s Nonproliferation Program. He received his PhD in History in 2009 from the Institute of Asian and African Studies, Moscow State University.

  • Dr Andrea Edoardo Varisco (Italy/United Kingdom) is the Acting Director of SIPRI’s Dual-use and Arms Trade Control Programme. He has a PhD in Post-war Recovery Studies from the University of York, has worked as Head of Analytics for Conflict Armament Research and has field research experience in conflict-affected countries in the Middle East, South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Varisco has authored and co-authored analytical reports on arms control and weapons and ammunition management for national government agencies and security and defence forces in Europe, Africa and Asia. His recent publications include ‘Post-shipment control measures: European approaches to on-site inspections of exported military materiel’, SIPRI Background Paper (Dec. 2020, co-author).

  • Pieter D. Wezeman (Netherlands/Sweden) is a Senior Researcher in SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme. He has contributed to many SIPRI publications since 1994, including SIPRI’s annual reviews of global trends in arms transfers, arms industry, military expenditure and multilateral arms embargoes. Among other things, he has published on transparency in military matters, military expenditure and capabilities in the Middle East, arms flows to Africa, and the European arms industry. In 2003–2006 he also worked as a Senior Analyst on arms proliferation for the Dutch Ministry of Defence, and in 2017 as a Technical Expert for the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts during a review of the UN Report on Military Expenditure.

  • Siemon T. Wezeman (Netherlands) is a Senior Researcher in SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme. His areas of research include the monitoring of arms transfers—with a particular regional focus on the Asia–Pacific, South America, former Soviet regions and South Western Europe—and the use of weapons in conflicts, transparency in arms transfers, and the development of conventional military technologies. His recent publications include ‘Transparency in arms procurement’, SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security (Oct. 2020, co-author); ‘Mapping the international presence of the world’s largest arms companies’, SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security (Dec. 2020, co-author); Arms Flows to South East Asia, SIPRI Report (Dec. 2019); and ‘Trends in international arms transfers, 2020’, SIPRI Fact Sheet (Mar. 2021, co-author).

Citation (MLA):
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. "." SIPRI Yearbook. SIPRI. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2016. Web. 20 Oct. 2021. <https://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780192847577/sipri-9780192847577-miscMatter-009.xml>.
Citation (APA):
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (2016). . In SIPRI, SIPRI Yearbook 2021: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 20 Oct. 2021, from https://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780192847577/sipri-9780192847577-miscMatter-009.xml
Citation (Chicago):
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. "." In SIPRI Yearbook 2021: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, SIPRI. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016). Retrieved 20 Oct. 2021, from https://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780192847577/sipri-9780192847577-miscMatter-009.xml
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