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Contents

SIPRI Yearbook 2022

SIPRI Yearbook 2022

III. The multilateral export control regimes

Chapter:
14. Dual-use and arms trade controls
Source:
SIPRI Yearbook 2022
Author(s):
Mark Bromley

The Australia Group (AG), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and the Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-use Goods and Technologies (Wassenaar Arrangement, WA) are the four main multilateral export control regimes.1 The regimes are informal groups of participating states which agree on guidelines for the implementation of export controls on goods and technologies in the areas of chemical and biological weapons, missiles and other weapon of mass destruction (WMD) delivery systems, nuclear fuel cycle technologies and nuclear weapons, and conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies (table 14.3). Within each regime the participating states coordinate trade controls and related policies, share good practices on their implementation, and exchange information on proliferation cases, illicit acquisition attempts and licence denials, and in some cases licences granted. The participating states discuss technological developments and emerging technologies to continuously update the control lists defining relevant items that should be subject to controls. Through these functions, the regimes create important forums for exchanges among national policy and licensing officials, technical experts, and enforcement and intelligence officers—including across geopolitical divides. The participating states take all decisions in the regimes by consensus, and the resulting guidelines, control lists and good practice documents are politically rather than legally binding. Each participating state implements regime-prescribed trade controls and policies through national laws and their respective national export control systems. Despite the exclusive and non-binding nature of the regimes, their guidelines and control lists have been adopted by or adapted into the national export control systems of a large and increasing number of non-participating states—effectively creating International standards.2

Citation (MLA):
Bromley, Mark. "14. Dual-use and arms trade controls." SIPRI Yearbook. SIPRI. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2016. Web. 28 Jan. 2023. <https://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780192883032/sipri-9780192883032-chapter-014-div1-077.xml>.
Citation (APA):
Bromley, M. (2016). 14. Dual-use and arms trade controls. In SIPRI, SIPRI Yearbook 2022: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 28 Jan. 2023, from https://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780192883032/sipri-9780192883032-chapter-014-div1-077.xml
Citation (Chicago):
Bromley, Mark. "14. Dual-use and arms trade controls." In SIPRI Yearbook 2022: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, SIPRI. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016). Retrieved 28 Jan. 2023, from https://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780192883032/sipri-9780192883032-chapter-014-div1-077.xml
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