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Contents

SIPRI Yearbook 2020

SIPRI Yearbook 2020

About the authors

Chapter:
Source:
SIPRI Yearbook 2020

  • José Alvarado Cóbar (Guatemala) is a Research Assistant in SIPRI’s Governance and Society Programme, conducting research on gender, peace processes and conflict. Prior to joining SIPRI, he completed his graduate thesis on the fragmentation of women’s organizations during peace processes and the potential outcomes during post-conflict peacebuilding at Uppsala University. He has also conducted research on human trafficking, gang violence and mining conflicts in the United States and Guatemala, as well as on the monitoring and evaluation of health and education projects in Jordan. His most recent publications have focused on gender, peace processes, and arms transfers and arms transfer controls.

  • Dr Vincent Boulanin (France/Sweden) is a Senior Researcher at SIPRI, where his work focuses on the challenges posed by the advances of autonomy in weapon systems and the military applications of artificial intelligence (AI) more broadly. Before joining SIPRI in 2014, he completed a doctorate in political science at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences] in Paris. His recent publications include Artificial Intelligence, Strategic Stability and Nuclear Risk (SIPRI, June 2020, lead author); Limits on Autonomy in Weapon Systems: Identifying Practical Elements of Human Control (SIPRI–ICRC, June 2020, co-author); ‘Cyber-incident management: Dealing with risk of escalation’ (SIPRI, forthcoming 2020, co-author); and Bio Plus X: Arms Control and the Convergence of Biology and Emerging Technology (SIPRI, Mar. 2019, co-author).

  • Kolja Brockmann (Germany) is a Researcher in SIPRI’s Dual-use and Arms Trade Control Programme. He joined SIPRI in 2017 and conducts research in the fields of export control, non-proliferation and technology governance. He focuses on the multilateral export control regimes, controls on emerging technologies, particularly additive manufacturing, intangible transfers of technology and the Arms Trade Treaty. He received his MA with distinction in Non-Proliferation and International Security from King’s College London. His recent publications include Bio Plus X: Arms Control and the Convergence of Biology and Emerging Technologies (SIPRI, Mar. 2019, co-author) and Challenges to Multilateral Export Controls: The Case for Inter-regime Dialogue and Coordination (SIPRI, Dec. 2019).

  • Mark Bromley (United Kingdom) is the Director of SIPRI’s Dual-use and Arms Trade Control Programme, where his work focuses on national, regional and international efforts to regulate the international trade in conventional arms and dual-use items. His recent publications include Detecting, Investigating and Prosecuting Export Control Violations: European Perspectives on Key Challenges and Good Practices (SIPRI, Dec. 2019, co-author); ‘Measuring illicit arms and financial flows: Improving the assessment of Sustainable Development Goal 16’, SIPRI Background Paper (July 2019, co-author).

  • Dr Marina Caparini (Canada) is a Senior Researcher and Director of SIPRI’s Governance and Society Programme. Her research focuses on peacebuilding and the nexus between security and development. She is currently working on gender-sensitive and inclusive health services as a building block of peace. Prior to joining SIPRI in December 2016, she held senior positions at the Norwegian Institute for International Affairs, the International Center for Transitional Justice and the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. Her recent publications include ‘Gender training for police peacekeepers: Where are we now?’, SIPRI Backgrounder (Oct. 2019); ‘Police reform in Northern Ireland: Achievement and future challenges’, SIPRI Backgrounder (Oct. 2019, co-author); and ‘Connecting the dots on the triple nexus’, SIPRI Backgrounder (Nov. 2019, co-author), on the interlinkages between humanitarian, development and peace efforts.

  • Dr Ian Davis (United Kingdom) is the Executive Editor of the SIPRI Yearbook and an Associate Senior Fellow within Conflict and Peace at SIPRI. From 2014–16 he was the Director of SIPRI’s Editorial, Publications and Library Department. Prior to joining SIPRI, he held several senior positions and worked as an independent human security and arms control consultant. He has a long record of research and publication on international and regional security, and blogs on NATOrelated issues. His recent publications include ‘Towards an open and accountable NATO’ in eds I. Shapiro and A. Tooze, Charter of NATO (Yale University Press, 2018) and ‘How much does the UK spend on nuclear weapons?’, BASIC Research Report (Nov. 2018).

  • Dr Tytti Erästö (Finland) is a Senior Researcher in SIPRI’s Nuclear Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-proliferation Programme. Her research interests include the Iran nuclear deal, the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW), efforts to establish a weapons of mass destruction-free zone in the Middle East, and the global disarmament and non-proliferation regime more generally. Previously, she worked at the Ploughshares Fund in Washington, DC; the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School; and the Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation. Her recent publications include ‘The arms control–regional security nexus in the Middle East,’ EU Non-proliferation and Disarmament Paper no. 68 (Apr. 2020); ‘Will Europe’s latest move lead to the demise of the Iran nuclear deal?,’ SIPRI WritePeace blog (Jan. 2020); and ‘Fifty years of the NPT: Cause for celebration or commemoration?’, SIPRI WritePeace blog (May 2019).

  • Dr Aude Fleurant (Canada/France) is the Director of SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme. Her research interests focus on the transformation of the military market and analysis of the interaction of supply and demand dynamics. Her recent publications include ‘The SIPRI Top 100 arms-producing and military services companies, 2018’, SIPRI Fact Sheet (Dec. 2019, co-author); and ‘The European defence industry’ in ed. A. T. H. Tan, The Global Arms Trade: A Handbook (Routledge, forthcoming in 2020).

  • Shannon N. Kile (United States) is the Director of SIPRI’s Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-proliferation Programme. His principal areas of research are nuclear arms control and non-proliferation, with a special interest in the nuclear programmes of Iran and North Korea. His work also looks at regional security issues related to Iran and the Middle East. He has contributed to numerous SIPRI publications, including chapters on nuclear arms control and nuclear forces and weapon technology for the SIPRI Yearbook since 1994.

  • Hans M. Kristensen (Denmark) is the Director of the Nuclear Information Project at the Federation of American Scientists (FAS) and a SIPRI Associate Senior Fellow. He is a frequent consultant to the news media and institutes on nuclear weapon matters, and is co-author of the ‘Nuclear notebook’ column in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

  • Alexandra Kuimova (Russia) is a Research Assistant in SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme. Working with SIPRI’s databases on military expenditure, the arms industry and arms transfers, she focuses on developments in the Middle East and North Africa region and post-Soviet states. Her recent publications include ‘Trends in international arms transfers, 2019’, SIPRI Fact Sheet (Mar. 2020, co-author); ‘The SIPRI Top 100 arms-producing and military services companies, 2018’, SIPRI Fact Sheet (Dec. 2019, co-author); and ‘Military spending and arms imports by Iran, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the UAE’, SIPRI Fact Sheet (May 2019, co-author).

  • Dr Moritz Kütt (Germany) is a Senior Researcher at the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg, working within Arms Control and Emerging Technologies. In his research, he develops new approaches and innovative tools for verification of nuclear arms control, nonproliferation and disarmament agreements. These approaches and tools seek in particular to enable non-nuclear weapon states to participate effectively in such verification activities. Prior to his time in Hamburg, Kütt was a Postdoctoral Research Associate with the Program on Science and Global Security at Princeton University.

  • Dr Filippa Lentzos (Norway) is a Senior Research Fellow at King’s College London and an Associate Senior Researcher within Armament and Disarmament at SIPRI. She is also a Biosecurity Columnist at the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, an Editor of the social science journal BioSocieties, and the NGO Coordinator for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. A biologist and social scientist by training, she has researched and been actively involved in biological disarmament and non-proliferation for over 15 years. Her 450-page edited volume, Biological Threats in the 21st Century: The Politics, People, Science and Historical Roots, was published by Imperial College Press in 2016.

  • Dr Jaïr van der Lijn (Netherlands) is the Director of SIPRI’s Peace Operations and Conflict Management Programme. He is also an Associate Fellow at the Radboud University Nijmegen. His research interests include the future of peace operations, their evaluation and factors for success and failure, comprehensive approaches in missions and their relationship with local populations. His recent publications include Assessing the Effectiveness of the United Nations Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) (Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 2019, lead editor); Towards Legitimate Stability in CAR and the DRC: External Assumptions and Local Perspectives, SIPRI Policy Report (Sep. 2019, co-author); and ‘Multilateral peace operations and the challenges of irregular migration and human trafficking’, SIPRI Background Paper (June 2019).

  • Dr Diego Lopes da Silva (Brazil) is a Researcher with SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme. He holds a PhD in Peace, Defence and International Security Studies from São Paulo State University. His publications have mainly addressed issues of the arms trade, arms production and transparency in military expenditure. Prior to SIPRI, he held research positions at the Institute for Public Policy and International Relations (IPPRI) of the São Paulo State University and at the Latin American Network On Defense And Security (RESDAL). His recent publications include ‘Reassessing Brazil’s arms industry’ in eds K. Hartley and J. Belin, The Economics of the Global Defence Industry (Routledge, 2019); and ‘Filling arms production data gaps: South America as a case in point’, Economics of Peace and Security Journal (2018).

  • Giovanna Maletta (Italy) is a Researcher in SIPRI’s Dual-Use and Arms Trade Control Programme. Her research interests include export controls and trade compliance, with a particular focus on the dual-use and arms export control policies of the European Union (EU) and its member states. Her work also involves mapping cooperation and assistance activities in the field of arms transfer and SALW controls and of relevance to the implementation of the Arms Trade Treaty. Further, Maletta coordinates activities related to SIPRI’s role in the EU Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Consortium. Her most recent publications include ‘The inclusion of gender-based violence concerns in arms transfers decisions: The case of the Arms Trade Treaty’, SIPRI WritePeace Blog (Aug. 2019, co-author), and ‘Legal challenges to EU member states’ arms exports to Saudi Arabia: Current status and potential implications’, SIPRI Topical Backgrounder (June 2019).

  • Dr Caitríona McLeish (United Kingdom) is a Senior Fellow at the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU), University of Sussex, and Co-Director of the Harvard Sussex Program on Chemical and Biological Weapons. The main focus of her research is on the governance of dual-use technologies in regard to the effective implementation of the prohibitions under both the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological Weapons Convention, and how to create effective mechanisms to prevent misuse of legitimate science and technology. Her recent work includes analysis of past chemical and biological warfare programmes; consideration of chemical weapons use and allegations of use; and various examinations of the roles that have and might be played in chemical and biological disarmament efforts by actors outside of government.

  • Dr Zia Mian (Pakistan/United Kingdom) is the Co-Director of the Programme on Science and Global Security at Princeton University, where he also directs the Project on Peace and Security in South Asia. A physicist, his work focuses on nuclear weapons, arms control and disarmament, and nuclear energy issues. He is co-editor of the journal Science & Global Security and co-chair of the International Panel on Fissile Materials. Mian is co-author of Unmaking the Bomb: A Fissile Material Approach to Nuclear Disarmament and Nonproliferation (MIT Press, 2014). He has contributed to the SIPRI Yearbook on fissile materials since 2007.

  • Dr Dylan O’Driscoll (Ireland) is a Senior Researcher and Director of SIPRI’s Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Programme. His work focuses on the drivers of conflict and pathways to peace in the MENA Region and beyond. He is also an Associate Research Fellow at the LSE Middle East Centre. He previously held the Conflict Research Fellowship at the Social Science Research Council, New York, and worked as a Researcher and Lecturer at the Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute (HCRI) at the University of Manchester. O’Driscoll has spent over two years working and conducting research in Iraq and has published widely in both policy and academia.

  • Moa Peldán Carlsson (Sweden) is a Research Assistant at SIPRI within emerging military and security technologies. Her focus spans autonomous weapon systems, artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, arms control and emerging technology. During her studies in Political Science, she developed a profile on gender and terrorism, and wrote her thesis on alternative paths for female empowerment in militarized societies. She has also studied South Asian perspectives on peace and conflict in India and Nepal, as well as contemporary global security topics, terrorism and gender in Australia.

  • Dr Pavel Podvig (Russia) is a Researcher in the Program on Science and Global Security at Princeton University and a Senior Researcher at the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR). Podvig directs his own research project, Russian Nuclear Forces (RussianForces.org). He is also a co-editor of Science & Global Security and a member of the International Panel on Fissile Materials.

  • Daniel Porras (United States) is a Space Security Fellow at the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR). He focuses on political and legal issues surrounding space security, in particular the progressive development of sustainable norms of behaviour for space. He conducts research on the emergence of new technologies and approaches to strategic stability in outer space. Porras has participated as the technical expert for multiple UN bodies working on space security issues, including the Group of Governmental Experts on the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space and Subsidiary Group 3 (on PAROS) of the Conference on Disarmament.

  • Sofía Sacks Ferrari (Chile) is a Regional Data Curator at the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). From 2019 to 2020, she was a Research Assistant in SIPRI’s Peace Operations and Conflict Management Programme, where she collaborated with the programme’s research on peace operation trends and women’s participation in multilateral peace operations.

  • Timo Smit (Netherlands/Sweden) is a Researcher in SIPRI’s Peace Operations and Conflict Management Programme. He is in charge of SIPRI’s database on multilateral peace operations and conducts research on trends in peace operations and various related thematic issues. His recent research has focused on, among other things, women’s participation in peace operations and the civilian Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union.

  • Dan Smith (United Kingdom) is the Director of SIPRI. He has a long record of research and publication on a wide range of conflict and peace issues. His current work focuses on the relationship between climate change and insecurity, on peace and security issues in the Middle East and on global conflict trends. He is the author of successive editions of atlases of politics, war and peace, and the Middle East, and of a blog on international politics.

  • Dr Nan Tian (South Africa) is a Researcher in SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme, where he leads the Military Expenditure Project. His regions of expertise are Africa and China, with research interests focused on the causes and impact of military expenditure and civil conflict, and the issues relating to transparency and accountability in military budgeting, spending and procurement. Previously, he was a Macroeconomics Lecturer at the University of Cape Town. He has published in Defence and Peace Economics; The Economics of Peace and Security Journal; and Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy. His recent publications include ‘Estimating the arms sales of Chinese companies’, SIPRI Insights Paper (Jan. 2020, co-author).

  • Dr Petr Topychkanov (Russia) is a Senior Researcher in SIPRI’s Nuclear Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-proliferation Programme, working on issues related to nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament, arms control and the impact of new technologies on strategic stability. Prior to joining SIPRI in 2018, he held the position of Senior Researcher at the Centre for International Security at the Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences. His recent publications include The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Strategic Stability and Nuclear Risk, Volume III, South Asian Perspectives (SIPRI, Apr. 2020, editor and co-author).

  • Pieter D. Wezeman (Netherlands/Sweden) is a Senior Researcher in SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme. He has contributed to many SIPRI publications since 1994, including SIPRI’s annual reviews of global trends in arms transfers, arms industry and military expenditure. Among other things, he has published on military expenditure and capabilities in the Middle East, multilateral arms embargoes, arms flows to Africa, and the European arms industry. In 2003–2006 he also worked as a Senior Analyst on arms proliferation for the Dutch Ministry of Defence, and in 2017 as a Technical Expert for the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts during a review of the UN Report on Military Expenditure.

  • Siemon T. Wezeman (Netherlands) is a Senior Researcher in SIPRI’s Arms and Military Expenditure Programme. His areas of research include the monitoring of arms transfers, military spending and arms-producing companies, with a particular focus on the Asia–Pacific and former Soviet regions, the use of weapons in conflicts, transparency in arms transfers, and the development of conventional military technologies. His recent publications include ‘Reporting to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms’, SIPRI Background Paper (June 2019); Arms Flows to South East Asia (SIPRI, Dec. 2019); ‘Trends in world military expenditure, 2019’, SIPRI Fact Sheet (Apr. 2020, co-author); and ‘Trends in international arms transfers, 2019’, SIPRI Fact Sheet (Mar. 2020, co-author).

Citation (MLA):
"." SIPRI Yearbook. SIPRI. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2016. Web. 4 Dec. 2020. <https://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780198869207/sipri-9780198869207-miscMatter-009.xml>.
Citation (APA):
(2016). . In SIPRI, SIPRI Yearbook 2020: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2020, from https://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780198869207/sipri-9780198869207-miscMatter-009.xml
Citation (Chicago):
"." In SIPRI Yearbook 2020: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, SIPRI. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016). Retrieved 4 Dec. 2020, from https://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780198869207/sipri-9780198869207-miscMatter-009.xml
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